This year the overstory (forest canopy) was clearly a showstopper. The beautiful fall colour can certainly outshine the understory that grows beneath, however the understory has its own beauty and this is where the greatest diversity is found. The understory is comprised of the vegetation that grows beneath the canopy including “seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with specialist understory trees, shrubs and herbs”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Understory
In our urban landscape a natural understory can be largely missing, particularly in our urban gardens. In my own garden, along with an increasing number of native herbs and shrubs I have included a few native, “specialist” understory trees to increase diversity. They grow well in the shade of neighbouring canopy trees, will all tolerate urban conditions and are worthy substitutes to many for the non-native horticultural varieties.
Blue Beech: Carpinus caroliniana aka American Hornbeam, Ironwood, Musclewood
This tree has a blue tinged bark that is hard and smooth with a sinewy appearance. It grows up to 8 metres high with a low and spreading habit. It prefers deep, rich moist soils and will tolerate some flooding. Although is prefers shade it will tolerate full sun with enough moisture. Squirrels and birds will eat the seeds and flowers. The leaves turn a beautiful reddish copper colour in the fall. Mammals avoid browsing twigs and branches due to their unpalatable taste.
Ironwood: Ostrya virginiana aka Hop-Hornbeam
Although the Ironwood tree shares a similar common name to the Blue Beech these are two distinct trees. The Ironwood grows up to 12 metres with a wide spreading crown and long slender branches. It is very adaptable and will grow in full sun to full shade. It prefers well drained to slightly dry soils and is an excellent tree for an urban area.
Pagoda Dogwood: Cornus alternifolia
The Pagoda Dogwood is a small graceful tree with a flat, layered appearance growing up to 10 metres. It prefers moist, well drained soil. It has beautiful white fluffy spring flowers that mature into blue, berry like fruits that are attractive to a wide variety of birds. It is also a butterfly larval host.
Canadian Serviceberry: Amelanchier canadensis
The Canadian Serviceberry grows up to 8 metres. It bears elongated clusters of white showy flowers in spring followed by red berries that birds devour. It is drought tolerant and will grow in both shade and sun.
Although the title to this blog may sound overstated, I find my Common Witch Hazel, known botanically as Hamamelis virginiana, to be anything but common. This native, deciduous shrub has a rounded crown with a graceful, vase shaped growth habit and yellow, fragrant flowers that emerge September to October along with yellow fall leaf colour. The flowers are ‘stem hugging’ clusters with four ‘crinkly, strappy, ribbon shaped petals’ that usually emerge while the leaves are still on the tree.
The Common Witch Hazel grows in eastern North America including eastern and southern Ontario and can be found in woodlands, and along forest margins and stream banks. In the garden it can be used as a shrub, hedge, or as in my case, pruned into a small, multi-stemmed specimen ‘tree’, which suits my small suburban garden. Growing 15-20 feet high and wide, in full sun to part shade it grows well in average, medium moisture well drained soil. It is a low maintenance shrub with no serious insect or disease problems and requires only minimal pruning done in spring. (As with any woody plant pruning out dead, damaged or diseased wood should be done when discovered.) Among its many charms this native shrub has a beautiful winter silhouette, attractive grey bark, attracts birds and is considered tolerant of road salt, deer, erosion and clay soil. According to the Morton Arboretum, Common Witch Hazels also serve as a host plant for the larvae of the spring azure butterfly. What’s not to love!
Hamamelis virginiana has an interesting reproductive process. The flowers are wind or insect pollinated but after pollination fertilization of the ovules is delayed until the following spring with the fruit developing during that growing season. The fruits are greenish seed capsules that become woody by fall. These woody seed capsules then split open ‘exploding’ its one to two black seeds up to 30 feet away. According to the Brooklyn Botanical Garden fruit set is very low.
If you are eager to add this or some other native plant to your garden/property, drop in to Peterborough’s GreenUP Ecology Park for plants and expert advice.
We plant trees for various reasons. Trees are one of the main contributors to a beautiful landscape. They provide shade and can provide a windbreak. Trees sequester carbon and help to clean the air … some can even help to clean toxins from the soil. They serve as homes, shelters, and food for many birds and other small and large creatures including humans. A stroll through a forest can cool, calm, and inspire us!
There is a lot to consider in order to choose the right tree for you.
Make a List:
Do you want shade, shelter, privacy or just something to fill a spot?
Do you want a tree that produces fruit or flowers?
Do you prefer leaves (deciduous trees) or needles (coniferous trees)? · Do you want a native tree? See Ontario Tree Atlas to see which trees are native to your area of Ontario.
Think about your budget. Some trees are more costly than others.
Stand in your chosen potential tree planting location and look around.
How close is your home and other buildings including the neighbour’s?
Are there any overhead wires that the tree’s branches will interfere with as it matures? Will the mature tree block window views?
Will mature tree roots eventually interfere with a building’s foundation or septic system? Will it’s branches scrape against walls, roofs or hang over the neighbour’s yard?
Will the tree drop fruit, seeds, twigs or large amounts of leaf debris on your sidewalk or deck?
How close are you to a road or parking area? Pavement impedes water and air from getting to the tree’s roots. Air pollution and road salt are very hard on many kinds of trees.
Next, lets look at what trees need. Different trees need different growing conditions.
Determine your soil’s texture. Sandy soil will not retain water or contain many nutrients. Clay soil has lots of nutrients but may not drain well. Silt soil may not drain at all. Most soils are a combination of sand, clay and silt and will benefit from the addition of organic matter. Seee Soil Types and Soil Texture for more information.
Test your soil’s pH, if very acid or very alkaline, it will affect a trees ability to access soil nutrients. There are home test kits available or you may send a soil sample to a soil testing laboratory in Ontario. See Soil Testing Laboratories List for more information.
Evaluate your subsoil especially if you live in a new subdivision. Newer subdivisions often have a thin layer of topsoil on compacted subsoil. You may need to replace some of the subsoil with topsoil or at least break the subsoil up so that the tree will not develop a shallow root system. A tree’s roots need to be able to spread out to access water and air.
Water is necessary for the tree roots to absorb nutrients and for other life processes. Some trees prefer more water while others prefer a well drained site and there are lots of variations in between. How much moisture will be available to your tree?
Buildings, other structures and other trees can shade the soil. Many trees need full sun but many will tolerate partial shade. How much sunlight will your tree receive in a day?
Plant Hardiness Zone
The plant hardiness zone of your potential tree planting location will indicate the weather conditions that your tree needs. In Canada, the zones are based on maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rainfall, snowfall, frost free period and wind. See Plant Hardiness of Canada to figure out your plant hardiness zone.
“Which Tree do I Buy” Example:
You love trees that flower. You have decided to plant a tulip tree in the small courtyard of your condo in Peterborough, great, they grow in zones 3-4 … so far so good for the Peterborough area. However, tulip trees can grow over 35 m (115 ft) according to the University of Guelph, so a tulip tree is not a good choice for the tiny yard of a condo. The mature tree will be far too large!
In summary, make a list of what you want and your specific growing conditions. We have many locally owned plant nurseries nearby. The staff will use their expert knowledge to help you choose a tree appropriate for your needs and growing conditions.
I have a lot of gardening books and whilst I do search on the internet if I have a quick question, there are a few books that I go to repeatedly and often. One of these is from the UK Royal Horticultural Society – Pruning & Training. I am sure you could find a similar book in Canada but as this book was given to me a few years ago by my father-in-law as a present, it has special meaning for me.
I love growing fruit, apples, grapes, currants, blueberries, to name a few and as I have a smaller city garden, this comes with challenges. I have to make use of all available space and prune effectively to fit everything I want into my garden. Hence the reason why this book is so important to me and why I use it so often.
There are chapters on ornamental trees as well as ornamental shrubs and roses and a good introduction describing the parts of a plant as well as the principles of pruning and training. But it is the chapters on tree fruits, soft fruits and climbing plants that I refer to most often. I actually have PostIt® notes on the sections that describe the pruning shapes I have chosen for my apples, currants, gooseberries and grape so I can check I am doing it correctly. I must admit it took a few years to observe the effectiveness of pruning well, I was always hesitant to cut off too much of the plant, much as I still save every perennial seedling that comes up in my garden. In my last house we had a grape for approximately 6 years and whilst we did get some fruit on it, we could have doubled or tripled the harvest with better pruning, but I hated to cut so much off.
For my grape vine I originally had it growing over an arch, but it soon outgrew that support, so we had to build a new support system and then re-prune it into its new system. There are many different systems that can be used for grapes including the rod and spur system in which the grape is grown along 3-4 horizontal wires to the guyot system in which shoots from two horizontal stems are grown vertically.
The chapter on tree fruits starts by showing diagrams of all the different forms or shapes as well as describing basic and pruning techniques. There are lots of photos and diagrams in this book so that you can visually see everything being discussed, which I really like. There is also a section on renovating neglected tree fruits.
I chose to prune my apples trees as espaliers on a four tiered tree, this is my trees fourth year and first year that they have blossoms, so I am hoping to have my first apples. It is fairly time consuming, especially as I didn’t know what I was doing the first couple of years, but I followed the instructions religiously and am now beginning to approach the trees with pruners in hand confidently.
My currant and gooseberry bushes were pruned as multiple cordons with three vertical arms. I have this grown both on the same support system that I have for the fruit trees but also on bamboo poles. I find that by growing them in this way as opposed to a bush, I can fit more currant bushes into the same space, I grow red, pink, white and black, and they are easier for me to pick. I still have a high yield of berries and am able to harvest almost all of them.
There are plenty of videos on the internet showing different pruning techniques, maybe even too many as it is often difficult to choose just one, and then you end up getting side tracked. As I was writing this article and looking up videos, I ended up watching three including one on heucheras. Here’s one you might like from the RHS on renovating fruit trees.
One of the main reasons why I bought my current home in the centre of Lindsay was the majestic Maple and Walnut trees lining each side of the road. I was lucky enough to purchase a house with a Silver Maple and a red Norway Maple in the front yard. I now have the front yard of my dreams, partial- to full-shade, and full of hostas, cimicifugas, astilbes, and countless other shade perennials and bulbs.
However as I learned in the first spring, having two very large maple trees, especially a Norway maple, in the garden does come with some disadvantages. The first spring after I moved in, thousands of seedlings emerged in the front perennial bed. At that time I had not dug out my entire front garden; 50% of it was still lawn, so it was a little more manageable. The small seedlings in the perennial bed I pulled out and I mowed over the seedlings in the lawn. Once my entire front garden became perennial beds three years ago, the number of seedlings exploded. I probably should add, just to be fair to my two maple trees, that it is not entirely their fault. In the fall I leave most of the leaves on the soil, occasionally raking them up, mulching them and spreading them back down. I also collect bags of leaves from friends and neighbours and after mulching them up, I spread them liberally over both the front and back garden. Both these practices definitely increases the number of seedlings I get, but I tend to weigh the benefits of improving the soil against dealing with the seedlings.
Norway maples, as most people are now aware, are considered an invasive species. They are fast growing, often out-competing native trees. There were widely planted in most cities due to their vigorous growth and tolerance of city conditions including soil compaction, pollution, and salt. They also produce huge numbers of seed, which can grow in very dense conditions and grow very quickly. Now, I have to add here that my other maple tree, the silver maple, also produces large numbers of seed. Whilst it is a native tree, it also grows very quickly and is widely planted in cities. It is also a tree that is disliked by many; you only have to do a search on the internet to find many articles similar to this one by the Globe and Mail.
So back to the main reason for writing this blog — how to deal with the thousands of maple seedlings that germinate every spring. Before you can begin to eradicate anything you need to be able to identify it. I quickly learned how to identify a maple seedling; see picture below.
Once you have pulled out a few hundred or thousand of these, you will be able to spot one from at least a 20-30 foot distance. Beware, they like to hide under piles of leaves, or try to blend in with your other spring ephemerals, such as under the leaves of yellow wood poppies or hellebore. They germinate rapidly once the weather warms, making it difficult to pull them out without stepping on other bulbs or perennials that are just starting to emerge. They often stand there taunting you in the middle of your bloodroot, knowing that you won’t weed in between until after the plant has finished flowering, at which point the maple seedling has grown a few more inches. The following are some of the strategies that I have developed over the past three years for handling the maple seedlings that germinate in my garden each year:
Pull them out as early as you can. If you can pull them when they are only 1 or 2 inches tall they can easily be pulled by hand. When I say easily here I am referring to the strength needed to pull them, not the wear and tear on your back and knees, which I will attempt to address later. But beware as I mentioned earlier, the seeds grow quickly. If the seedling is more than a few inches in height you might want to use a pair of pliers allowing you to get a good grip on the seedling before pulling out. Unfortunately if the seedling is much bigger than that, you may have to dig it up.
The strategy that I use most often is to try and turn it into a game as this also stops you from tearing your hair out. Whenever I leave the house, I make myself pull out 10-50 seedlings. The amount often depends on how much of a rush I am in, but I never leave the house without pulling at least 10 out. I must admit that this has occasionally made me late for an appointment, but the knowledge that I have done something productive is well worth it. Now this game can also be played in reverse (I know, it’s sounding more fun all the time), meaning that you can play it when you return from whatever you were doing. If it’s dark you may have to grab a flashlight and if you’re carrying grocery bags, they can be left on the driveway, at least for a short while. Before you go into the house, pull up at least 10 seedlings. Trust me, this game will grow on you.
Enlist family and anyone else who (usually) routinely visits you to partake in this game also. Do not make them a cup of tea unless they can produce 10 pulled seedlings. I was able last year to persuade my husband on a couple of occasions to join me, although I’m not sure that he participated in it strictly for the enjoyment factor.
Pay your children or your neighbour’s children (when it’s safe to invite them over) to pull them out. The only trouble with this is they will only be able to pull out the seedlings that can be reached via the path. But if you’re lucky, they may take cookies as part payment.
Do not, on any account leave any seedlings, thinking you will pull them out next year. When I moved into my current house, I had maple trees 3 to 4 feet tall growing next to the foundations of the house, the garage, and anywhere where it was almost impossible to get a spade in to dig them out. They grow very quickly; do not look away!
Photo above shows how many seedlings I collected in 5 minutes yesterday. Unfortunately, this year looks like another bumper year for these volunteers in my garden.
Last year at around this time on a beautiful, sunny and mild Saturday, I found myself in an apple orchard south of Norwood learning the intricacies of pruning apple trees. Fruit trees need to be pruned in order to open up the tree canopy to sunlight and air circulation which promotes fruit production and a healthy plant.
Most trees benefit from some pruning, but an important aspect of the task is knowing when to prune. Proper timing helps to insure attractive, healthy, productive trees and shrubs.
February through March is generally regarded as the best time to prune most deciduous trees. The absence of foliage at this time of year gives the individual a clear view of the tree and allows the selection and removal of appropriate branches.
The best time to prune flowering trees or shrubs is right after they’ve finished blooming. Unlike other trees in this article, pruning of these is unlikely to have anything to do with February or March!
Prune evergreen shrubs, such as juniper and yew, in late March or early April before new growth begins. Light pruning may also be done in mid-summer. Avoid pruning evergreen shrubs in the fall as fall pruned evergreens are more susceptible to winter injury. Late winter is the best time to remove unwanted lower branches on evergreen trees.
Back to the apple orchard. Late February to early April is the best time to prune fruit trees in our area. Pruning should be completed before the fruit trees begin to break bud (leaf out) in early spring.
I learned that the first rule of pruning is to remove any dead, injured or diseased branches. Cut just past the “branch collar”–the wrinkled part where the branch connects to the trunk or another branch.
Then, moving up and around the tree, look for branches that cross each other and eliminate the ones that are not evenly spaced or are not at the best angle. Competing branches will cause problems for the tree. Fruit trees should only have one central leading branch. If two or more exist, choose the healthier one and remove the others.
It was definitely an interesting afternoon. Much thanks to my friend Carl for the lesson!
Three Items of Likely Interest
While we’re on the subject of trees, I thought the following timely items would be of interest to our readers.
Ecology Park Spring Sale, Victoria Day Weekend. Mark your calendar now and plan to support Ecology Park programs with purchases of over 150 species of edible and native plants, shrubs, and trees that thrive in our region of Ontario and provide important habitat for wildlife and pollinators.
ORCA Seedling Program — Otonabee Conservation can assist you in reforesting or planting additional trees on your property through the Tree Seedling Program. Orders for trees can be placed in early March for delivery in late April. Tree whips (3-4yrs old) come bare root. Trees range in price from $1 per tree to $4 per tree, but there is a minimum order of 25 trees of a single variety so you may want to split an order with a friend or two (or three). See the link below for more information. Order deadline this year is March 10, 2020.
Coincidentally, the Peterborough Horticultural Society speaker this coming Wednesday February 26 (2020) is Vern Bastable from Peterborough Green Up. Vern will be speaking about “Choosing the Right Tree”. Guests are always welcome for a nominal $2 charge. The meeting is held at the Peterborough Lions Centre in Ashburnham from 7pm-8:30pm sharp and refreshments are served before the meeting.
Lastly, here are some resources that you may find helpful.
I’m trying something new today. If you’re like me, you’re going a bit loopy by mid-February. The snow just keeps on falling, you have no more room for new houseplants, and you just want to see some green or flowers. Two years ago I went to visit friends in Florida and it just rejuvenated this gardener’s soul to see the two Gs – green and growth, plus some beautiful flowers like these.
Where was I? (distracted by looking through all my February Florida flower photos!). Back to the blog topic at hand.
Often people force bulbs like paperwhite narcissus, muscari and hyacinths in mid-winter, but in many cases that requires remembering to put the ones that require a cold period in the fridge or other cold spot (and I never remember).
Then I saw someone “forcing” flowering shrub branches and I said “I can do that!”. The key is to cut branches and fake them into thinking it’s spring and time to flower.
Under normal conditions, warming spring temperatures and lengthening days trigger flower buds to swell and open.
The process is fairly straightforward:
Head outside in your garden, preferably when the temperatures are above zero Celsius and it is sunny
Using sharpened secateurs, look for branches with plump buds and cut branches about a foot or so in length; make sure to use clean pruners and proper cuts to protect the rest of the plant
Plunge the branches immediately into a bucket of very warm water inside (about as warm as you can stand on your hands); the water helps move that first burst of moisture up into the stems; some people advise submerging the entire stems in water in a bathtub overnight
After 6 hours, make fresh cuts (see next bullet) and move branches to water-filled vases. Use narrow necked vases, bottles, or mason jars to keep the branches standing upright
Don’t smash the branch ends (old advice) – make a slit or two in the bottom of the stem so it looks like a cross or star pattern from the bottom.
Add floral preservative to the water or 1 tablespoon of antibacterial mouthwash per quart of water to prevent bacteria growth
Another option is to leave the cut branches in the original bucket of water until they bloom. Then they can be moved into vases, as needed
Keep in a cool area (no more than 18 degrees Celsius/65 degrees F) and in indirect light (warmer temperatures cause buds to develop too rapidly and not open properly and direct sun can cause bud drop)
Change the water weekly (adding new preservative). If the water discolours or begins to smell replace it, and in 2 to 4 weeks, the dormant flower and leaf buds should open
Mix the blooming branches with a cut evergreen branches for a free bouquet
Branches that are a half-inch or less in diameter work best, as do plants that flower earliest in spring. Make a fresh cut whenever the cut ends are exposed to the air for any reason – that exposure will lead to healing, and when the cut end seals, it can’t take up new water.
Among the best bets? Plants that naturally flower before May – things like fruit trees, lilacs, azaleas, rhododendrons, redbuds, witch hazels, forsythias and magnolias – species that produce their flower buds the year before.
It helps to understand each species’ different “chilling” requirements before buds are in position to open. Chill time occurs at 4 degrees Celsius (40 degrees Fahrenheit) and less. Most spring bloomers are ready to flower after about 6 weeks of chilling, but some late-spring bloomers need eight or 10 weeks*.
* Trees and shrubs suitable for forcing from January on: Cornelian cherry dogwood, filbert, forsythia, fothergilla, witch hazel; from early February on: apple, cherry, crabapple, ornamental pear; from mid-February on: beech, birch, Japanese maple, lilac, magnolia, quince, red maple, serviceberry, willow.
What a perfect way to brighten your house in winter while impressing everyone with your gardening expertise. And best of all it’s free..
I’ll be planting some witch hazel this spring to be ready for next year!
Here’s some other great suggestions from Ottawa Master Gardener Kira Burger on things gardeners can do to keep occupied until the snow melts.
Winter is a time for planning and dreaming about our gardens.
Since we decided to move and downsize, I’ve been planning on how I want to create my new garden. Right now, under the snow, is mostly compacted construction zone. Debris from bricks, rocks, and stones ( I’ve collected some of the larger stones for garden beds) and weeds have been partly covered by sand fill. I’m hoping that we will have topsoil and sod fairly early in the spring. In the meantime, I’ve been dreaming and planning.
Our house is oriented east-west. There are two story houses to the north and south of us. Before planning on what shrubs and plants to put in those areas, I want to see how much shade they provide and for how long during the daytime. I’m keeping a record of where the sun is in the sky relative to those areas. The front and back are wide open, like a blank canvas.
At the same time, I’m making plans for what trees and shrubs I want to put in those areas. My choices are for mostly native shrubs, trees and and fruit producing plants. Other than the usual garden centres, I’ve been looking for places to purchase native plants and have found some close by Peterborough that grow shrubs and trees. Richardson’s Pineneedle Farms in Pontypool is one. They are a major commercial grower and have a lot of native shrubs and trees for sale. You can buy in bulk there. Another one Eastern Evergreen Inc. grows white cedar for hedges and is located in Warkworth.
With an office in downtown Peterborough, Cedar Ontario has a long track record of providing healthy natural eastern white cedar trees and installing hedges throughout Peterborough and the Kawarthas.
When it opens, Ecology Park in Peterborough is another good place to purchase native plants. Their big annual plant sale is Saturday May 16th at 10 am. Remember to bring your own containers for leaf compost and cedar mulch. The bulk sales are self loading , with a 20 bucket limit per person, per visit. Knowledgeable staff and are there to help you (and often Master Gardeners are there too).
In the meantime, I’m researching trees and shrubs, drawing plans, and dreaming.
As this decade comes to a close, I like to think that I over the past ten years that have learned some things about gardening. And with that in mind, I’ve set a few New Year’s resolutions to guide me through this next year (and decade).
1. Be Better at Cleaning My Tools
I have some great tools – my Felco #12 secateurs/pruners (several pairs), my delightful drain spade, and my Japanese hori hori knife. But I am neglectful and do not clean these well during the season and especially at the end of the gardening year. My resolutionto improve my tool maintenance for next year. Some guidance here and here.
2. Make a Plan
I was basically back to square one in my garden a few years ago after a major house renovation. Since then we have installed some hardscaping and I have tried to replan my gardens. I’m 15 years older than when I first did my gardens, so my plan needs to take into account my aging and energy level, so I have eliminated those fussy perennials and focused more on a garden built on flowering shrubs that are lower maintenance. But I don’t have a plan, and my engineer husband keeps saying “where’s the plan?”. So my resolution is to spend this January laying out a plan for spring, rather than just going with my gut.
3. Don’t Order Too Many Seeds
This will be a tough one. After all who hasn’t looked out their window in January at the snowy landscape while reviewing seed catalogues and dreaming of a perfect garden? The diversity available via seed companies is just astonishing these days, and it’s nice to grow something that your friends don’t have and that you can keep seed for the next year! But we all tend to indulge and over purchase, so my resolution is to have a specific place for any seeds that I order (see previous note for a plan), and to test all the existing seeds I have for viability like this.
4. Share my Knowledge and Start a Blog
While I write a blog for the Peterborough Master Gardeners on a regular basis, I’d like to start a garden blog of my own. The challenge? Just finding the time when I work full time and write for a living. Myresolution is to spend January getting a basic blog set up, and then to try and write once a week starting in February. I’ll share a link once it’s up and running, and you can all hold me to task for getting it off the ground. The great part is there is lots of good advice on how to start a blog out there.
Create a Holistic Garden
I am passionate that my garden should be more than just beautiful flowers – it should be a wonderful habitat for birds and bugs and critters and pollinators, and everything in between. I want to know that I am making a difference that contributes to supporting our local ecology and habitat. My resolution is to continue focusing on this as I re-establish my garden, and share my knowledge with others so that we can all make a difference.
Wishing everyone a Happy New Year and a wonderful 2020 gardening season, wherever you may be.
What to do with leaves? It used to be that one would rake the leaves, put them into bags to be collected by the municipality, where they would often be put into landfill or composting. They are a rich source of organic material for the garden that helps retain moisture in the soil.
I have a friend that collects leaves that fall on her lawn, bags them and uses them the next spring in her vegetable garden. They first mulch them into the lawn, then, what remains is collected into bags and stored until spring. The leaves are spread between the rows of her vegetable garden in the spring and watered down. When the tender vegetable plants have sprouted, she then uses the leaves to mulch around all of her veggies. By fall there are no more leaves, just rich organic material in the soil for next years garden.
The leaves can also be used to protect tender perennials by covering them with a blanket for the winter. Indeed, mulch all of your perennial beds with leaves in the fall to protect them from winter extremes. And don’t be in a hurry to uncover them in the spring.
I’ve included a couple of links to give you other ideas of how to use this valuable resource.
Waiting for top soil and sod for our new home, I’ve “planted” pots with my shrubs, tulip tree and peonies into the fill along the side of the house. I collected some bags of leaves along the roadside and have mulched the pots for the winter.