All posts by peterboroughmastergardeners

Bromeliads

By Sharleen Pratt, Master Gardener

Continuing on a similar theme to last week’s blog on Orchids by Master Gardener Cheryl Harrison, I thought I would touch on another family of plants that are tropical and exotic; the Bromeliaceae family.  Known as Bromeliads, it is a large family which includes more than 50 genera and at least 2,500 known species which are native mainly from an area stretching from the southern U.S. to Central and South America.

Before COVID, we would do an annual visit to the Sarasota area in Florida.  One of my favourite places to visit is the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.  Selby Garden botanists have made hundreds of expeditions into the tropics and subtropics and have contributed to the most diverse living and preserved collection of epiphytes in the world.  They have a greenhouse that is beautiful to walk through with very knowledgeable volunteers to answer questions.

Many bromeliads are stiff-leaved, rosette-forming plants with brightly coloured leaves, bracts and flowers.  The majority of them are epiphytic, meaning that they grow on the branches of trees without taking nutrients from the tree.  They can also be lithophytic which means they reside on rocks, and the remaining are generally terrestrial, meaning that they grow in soil.  Bromeliad flowers can last several months, but they generally only bloom once.  The mother plant will produce new plantlets, also called ‘pups’.  They are incredibly resilient but do not like to be overwatered.  Their roots are usually used for balance and not for transferring nutrients.  Instead, the leaves take in all of the water and nutrients the plant needs.  They never breath out carbon dioxide almost as if they hold their breath in order not to lose moisture.  It is a very special photosynthesis.

A picture of a Bromeliad Tree taken at the Edison & Ford Winter Estates in Fort Myers

Many bromeliads have leaves that form a reservoir to hold water at their bases (known as tank bromeliads), with the largest holding up to two gallons of water.  Types that don’t hold water are called xerophytic or atmospheric bromeliads.

One of the most well-known Bromeliads is in the Ananas genera.  This is the pineapple, Ananas comosus.  Europeans first found out about bromeliads when Columbus went on his second trip to the New World in 1493.  The pineapple was being cultivated by the Carib tribe in the West Indies.  After colonization, it was rapidly transported to all areas of the tropics and became a very important fruit.

Another genus is Tillandsia.  It is the largest group in the family and this genus is also known as “air plants”.  Most do not form tanks and have grey-green leaves and are densely covered with fuzzy scales that give the plants their characteristic colour.  Tillandsia require more humidity than other bromeliads and tend to dehydrate in the dry air of most homes, but can still be grown successfully with more frequent watering.

Spanish Moss falls under this genus, Tillandsia usneoides.  It is very prevalent in Florida and is neither Spanish nor a moss.  Unlike other epiphytes that have roots to anchor themselves to their host tree, Spanish moss has tiny scales on its leaves and its curved structure to cling to its host tree.  It is important for diversity as its large mats that drip from trees harbor a great variety of insects, birds and bats.  In Florida, you usually see Spanish Moss clinging to Live Oaks.

Author standing under a Live Oak tree covered in Spanish Moss


Bromeliads will survive for months or even years under less than ideal conditions.  They need satisfactory light, temperature and humidity.  It is best to use water that is not softened.  You should use a potting mix that holds moisture yet drains quickly.  Orchid bark mixed with course perlite and humus is good for most bromeliads.  The small air plants only need to be misted with a spray bottle or put in a bowl of water for an hour.  If you would like to learn more about these amazing plants, visit University of Wisconsin-Madison.

don’t be afraid!

By Cheryl Harrison, Master Gardener

The idea of growing and caring for orchids may be daunting, but perhaps you would like to try something new.  Don’t be afraid! A few years ago, I was seduced by a beautiful, exotic bloom and bought my first orchid.  I was very happy to discover that even I could successfully grow orchids!

All of my orchids are  Phalaenopsis orchids; these are the easiest ones to grow.  I love the airy sound of the Latin name and it suits the common name perfectly which is “moth orchid”.   These orchids bloom in many different gorgeous colours and have shiny, thick and leathery green leaves.  Their aerial roots are part of what makes them look so exotic.  They like the average home’s indoor temperatures and light levels so make great indoor plants.

Phalaenopsis orchids.

Phalaenopsis orchids are epiphytes, or air plants, which means that they grow on rocks or trees in their natural, usually tropical or subtropical, habitat.  They get much of their water and nutrients from the air.  As indoor plants, these orchids will need to be potted in a special potting mix.  Orchid potting mix often contains bark, vermiculite, perlite and moss. Regular potting soil retains too much water which will rot the roots of your Phalaenopsis orchid.  Orchid pots often have holes in the sides of the pot in order to keep the roots well aerated. This inner orchid pot is then often placed in an outer more decorative pot as shown in the picture above.  Orchids need to be repotted every 2-3 years as the bark in the potting mix breaks down.  Orchid potting mix is available from many of our local nurseries.

Phalaenopsis orchids do not like direct sun but will do well in indirect light close to an east or west window.   You may put them outdoors during the warm summer months but not in direct sunlight.  They like high humidity and may benefit from sitting on a drip tray.

Example of a drip tray.

I water my orchids once a week.  I flood the surface of the potting medium with room temperature, non-chlorinated water until it runs through the bottom of the orchid’s pot.  I allow the excess water to drip from the bottom of the orchid pot before placing it back into its outer pot.   I have also used ice cubes to water my orchids.  Place 2-3 ice cubes on the surface of the potting media, not on the plant, once a week, and let them melt.  I know, I know, ice to water a tropical plant??!!  The Ohio State University and the University of Georgia did some experimenting to prove that ice cubes will not harm your orchid.  Check out the results here (Watering Phalaenopsis orchids with ice cubes) .  I do not fertilize my orchids but if you wish to do so here is a link (How do I feed my orchid).

When you purchase your orchid, it may be in full bloom.  Don’t just look at that beautiful bloom!  Check the plant for signs of poor health, disease and/or pests.  The plant’s leaves should be firm, shiny and green not pale and floppy, wrinkled, cracked or missing pieces.  There should be no insects living on your plant.  If you can, look at the roots in the pot, make sure that they are white/cream coloured.  Black/brown roots indicate root rot.  The best place to purchase your orchid is from a reputable local nursery.  Big box stores may have what appear to be lovely plants but you may bring home more than you bargained for…perhaps pests or disease that will kill your orchid and infect your other indoor plants. 

The gorgeous blooms on your orchid will eventually die and drop off.  Cut the flower stem back to the node closest to the where the bottom flower was located.  The stem may die then you will cut it off close to the parent plant or it may develop into a new flower or a baby plant called a keiki.  Cooler night temperatures may encourage reblooming.  I move my plants to my cooler basement to encourage them to rebloom.  Note that they are still exposed to lots of indirect light during the day in my basement.

Don’t be afraid.  Give Phalaenopsis orchids a try.  They are well behaved indoor house plants and their blooms are spectacular!

Phalaenopsis orchid.

Resources

American Orchid Society   
Canadian Orchid Congress

Year in review: part 1

By Suzanne Seryck, Master Gardener

It is a beautiful fall day as I’m writing this blog, blue sky and temperature around 20 degrees. I have just finished the last jobs before putting my garden to bed for the winter. The last of my 30 or so bags of leaves have been mulched and put onto the gardens, apple trees have all been wrapped to prevent rabbits and squirrels from eating the bark off of them, and I have emptied the rain barrels onto the trees, shrubs and fruit bushes.

Time for both a well earned rest and for me to put together my garden review list for this year. All season long I jot down notes of anything that is working, not working or something that I need to concentrate on or remember for next year and then I compile it into one list. This year I’m going to share my list in this blog, although the list is a little long for just 1 blog so I’ll split it in 2 parts.

I don’t plant many annuals in my garden–a couple of urns out front with 2 hanging baskets, and some large pots at the back. I love the colour that annuals provide all season, but they typically need more watering than I like to do, and I find them expensive. Last year I overwintered some cuttings I took from both my coleus and sweet potato vines as well as overwintering the purple fountain grass. All the cuttings worked great, and in the spring after hardening off I was able to plant them into my pots and urns; they grew really lush and full. The green potato vine was much stronger and more robust all season than either the purple or copper plants, however the purple fountain grass grew back very slowly never really getting the vibrant purple colour back. This year I’ve taken even more cuttings from my coleus along with the green and purple sweet potato vine. However, I decided that I would rather spend the money on new fountain plants each spring.

Urn in author’s garden

I have 2 large compost piles that I use all year, filling to the top with leaves and then burying food scraps the rest of the year. This year I religiously turned the one pile every couple of weeks starting as early as I could and was rewarded with compost all gardening season. In the second pile though, a couple of errant zucchini plants started growing producing lush growth and lots of flowers and I thought ‘why not leave them?’. I’m sure you can guess the rest, not a single zucchini and I was not able to use any of the compost all season. Note to myself if anything accidentally grows out of the compost next year, turn it back in.

For the first time this season I grew Sicilian zucchini, now I didn’t actually realize I had bought this variety until it started growing up the espaliered tree fence and growing 2-3 foot long zucchinis. I’m definitely going to grow them again next year, although in a different location. When the frost finally killed off the plants and we pulled them off the fence, the wires were no longer taut and needed some tightening. Another point to note is that the zucchinis were consistently eaten throughout August and September when they were barely an inch or two longer. I’m not sure why that only happened later in the summer, maybe the squirrel or rabbit population doubled when I wasn’t looking. I’m thinking of placing bags over the fruit as it is growing, hoping by the time it gets to a foot or more it won’t be quite so attractive to predators.

I tend to leave my perennials to self seed as I love growing plants from seed; it is probably one of my favourite things to do in the garden. I have set aside a nursery plot and any seedlings I find in the garden I move into the nursery. Unfortunately this year I noticed a definite increase in the number of swamp milkweed, verbascum and New England asters seedlings. Now I love these plants, but they are taking over both my garden and my garden paths. I grow Verbascum nigrum which is a beautiful stately plant with either yellow or white flowers. It tends to be a short lived perennial but as it grows profusely from seed, I always have a few plants in my garden. Swamp milkweed is a host for the monarch butterfly; in my garden I have both pink and white flowering plants. They prefer moist to wet soil and because my soil is dry, they are also short-lived. Not so the New England aster; this is a native aster which grows 4 to 5 foot with beautiful purple blue flowers, however it can get very large in just a couple of years. Next year I have to dead head these plants, leaving only a couple to go to seed, which I can then harvest and plant in a specific area of the nursery.

Verbascum in author’s garden; this one plant bloomed all summer.

On the positive side, I was surprised by an abundance of aquilegia (commonly known as columbine) in my front garden that I was not expecting. I had left the seedlings thinking from a distance they were meadow rue, only to be surprised by this showing:

Aquilegia in author’s front garden

Aquilegia are one of my favourite plants, but I tend not to grow them as I find in my garden they are eaten by slugs. One day I have a beautiful plant in full flower, and the next day just a few stems still standing. I’ve slowly been replacing them by meadow rue, which for me has a similar lacy look, which I like when paired with hostas and brunnera. Slugs don’t seem to like meadow rue, but for some unknown reason this year, they also left the aquilegia alone. Based on this I have since ordered some seeds from the native aquilegia, Aquilegia Canadensis, which has beautiful red and yellow flowers and also likes sun to part-shade.

And finally the dreaded creeping charlie in my lawn. I have a small lawn which I have been overseeding with clover in my attempt to make the lawn healthier and more low maintenance. Clover has a lot of great benefits in a law including growing in poor soils. Clover is a nitrogen fixing legume, so it will improve the health of the soil and the surrounding grass, needs less watering and mowing, attracts beneficial insects, and crowds out weeds. Unfortunately though it does not crowd out the creeping charlie and actually seems to co-exist with it harmoniously. The recommended solution in a lawn is to hand pull the creeping charlie and because it grows by rhizomes which then root into the soil, removing all parts of the plant can be very time consuming. I have heard that it is easier if you soak the ground first or weed after it has rained. Note to myself, recruit an army to help me after each rainfall in the spring, either that or learn to love it!

It’s not too late …

By Mary-Jane Pilgrim, Master Gardener

As I type this, we in central Ontario are in the midst of a burst of spring-like weather, and it’s supposed to continue for a few days yet. It gives us all a second chance to finish fall chores not completed when the snowfall and killing frosts hit in the last few weeks.

Author’s recently received Breck’s bulb order, still in the box!

If, like me, you failed to get all of your tulips and daffodils planted, do not worry. As long as you can get a shovel in the ground it’s OK to plant spring flowering bulbs. Some pros suggest they actually do better if planted when the ground harbors a bit of frost, so take advantage of those late season sales and plant away. Also, by planting later, you may experience fewer issues with squirrels stealing your bulbs. The arrival of snow doesn’t mean you’ve missed your chance, either. If the ground hasn’t completely frozen yet, you’re in luck, even if you have to break through the frozen crust first.

If you regularly find that squirrels munch on your buffet of bulbs, you may wish to purchase some “chicken wire” at your local co-op store. Cut a small round circle about the same size as the hole you’re going to dig. Plant the bulbs at the recommended depth, and then cover with some soil up to about 2″ from the surface. At that height, plant the chicken wire, and cover over with a bit more soil and mulch. The added benefit of the chicken wire is that should you forget where you planted tulips next summer after their foliage has died back, the chicken wire will be a good reminder when you hit it with your shovel. The bulbs will happily grow through the 1″ holes in the wire next spring.

An amazing purchase of mine a few weeks ago is a small cordless drill auger attachment. It works wonders to create just the right size of hole for my bulbs, with very little effort. Mine is only about 6″ tall and makes about a 2″ hole. I move it around a bit to make the hole just big enough for 5-6 bulbs. Worth the $10 investment, for sure.

Remember: Bulbs are not seeds. They are alive and need to be planted in the fall. They will not last in storage — or that sack on a shelf in the garage. They require somewhere between 13-14 weeks of sub-zero temperatures before they’ll bloom next spring.

So what do you do if you find a bag of bulbs in January? There is a method of bulb planting that can work even during the coldest winter. It’s called the “no-dig” method. Simply move the snow away from your chosen location and place your bulbs on the frozen ground. Cover them with a bag or two of garden soil to a depth of three times the height of the bulb, and that’s it! The bonus of this method is that the soil above the bulbs will likely freeze quickly, and squirrels won’t harvest half of your crop. This method also works in areas where there are so many roots that digging a hole for bulbs is challenging. Try it!

Resources:

HGTV: When is it Too Late to Plant Bulbs?

Country Living: It’s Not Too Late to Plant your Spring Bulbs

Meditation in Motion – Gardening as Therapy

By Emma Murphy, Master Gardener

“Caring for your garden can be a great form of mindfulness meditation. By connecting with the earth and with the practice of gardening, you can cultivate a healthy mind and feel calm and connected. Simply planting a seed with intention, or touching soil, can be transformative. Go ahead and get a little dirty.” — Suze Yalof Schwartz, founder of Unplug Meditation and author of “Unplug: A Simple Guide to Meditation for Busy Skeptics and Modern Soul Seekers.”

As I watched the first snowflakes fall on my gardens the other day, I reflected on this growing season and how much my gardens (and gardening) have supported my physical, mental, and emotional health, especially during this COVID-19 pandemic where so many other activities have not been possible.

Gardening is just so therapeutic on many levels. What I love best from year to year is the transformation from an area of soil with some structure (shrubs etc.) to a lush environment buzzing with pollinators and birds and chipmunks just a few months later. A garden is so satisfying because it builds over time – plants, shrubs, and trees get larger and healthier with each passing year, and your garden becomes more beautiful over time.

Medical studies have shown that gardeners live longer because they are active, have better body circulation, lower blood pressure, less stress, the list goes on….

Horticultural therapy is now widely practiced, where participants become “plant caretakers”, supporting their recovery and improving their moods, resulting in shorter stays in medical facilities. Some of my fellow Peterborough Master Gardeners do wonderful work at our local retirement and nursing homes with their gardening activities.

Basically, our gardens are a more intimate form of enjoying and appreciating nature, helping us understand how everything is interrelated in nature, and how we can contribute to the cycle of life by planting a seed and nurturing our flowers, shrubs, and trees. It’s a powerful connection that gives us a sense of optimism and purpose. As Audrey Hepburn said..

My experience with gardeners is that they are lifelong learners, much of that from trial and error. In general we are a patient lot, planning each year and persevering through the seasons. We can also be stubborn and focused, to be found in the garden from early morning through sunset, having totally forgotten about time.

Gardening as Active Meditation

Active meditation or “meditation in motion” is an activity that requires full attention and concentration without needing much deep intellectual thought. Trail running, mountain biking, hiking, and riding a horse are all examples of active meditation, where you must focus on what’s right in front of you.

Trying to figure out the emerging weeds from the young seedlings, setting up your pots and planting your seeds, determining the best tool for an activity – all these things demand your full attention and presence. At the same time, you are allowing your mind to relax and stop worrying about all of life’s daily concerns. Of course, all is this is premised on your attitude. If you look forward to spending time in your garden, viewing it as a pleasure instead of as a “chore” or something that must get done, then you will experience all the positive benefits of gardening.

Certainly no one is saying gardening is not hard work, but on a sunny spring day I can lose hours working in the garden, totally absorbed in the physicality of the activities. Especially after a long winter I appreciate the texture and smell of the soil, the breeze, the birds, the flowers, the trees, and the clouds and sky.

So as the season of outside gardening winds down (yes I actually got all my bulbs in the ground already), my thoughts turn to all that my garden gave me this past year, and I start on my plans for next year. Ever the optimist..

Whether you call it meditation, mindfulness, or ecotherapy, gardeners are blessed to have a steady place of solace in these trying times. Here’s to great memories and planning for next spring.

Some further reading if you are interested

How a Garden Grows You

Why are Gardens so Good for the Soul?

Why COVID gardening is about more than just food

How the Coronavirus Changed Gardening

Gardening is fundamentally an act of enormous hope because everything you do in the garden is for the future.
Barbara Frum, Canadian Broadcast Journalist

Chrysanthemums: perennials?

By Judy Bernard, Master Gardener

One of the early signs that summer is coming to a close is the proliferation of potted mums. These beautiful fall flowers come in a range of colours from white to yellow to burgundy and almost everything in between. They disappear when flowering is done, only for new ones  to appear next year all potted up and blooming profusely again. Although they are perennial (zone 5-9), one doesn’t usually find them in the flower bed, but instead they are displayed in wonderful potted arrangements. 

At the end of the season, rather than putting them in the compost, why not try planting them?

There are a few things one can do to try to help your mums survive the winter in the ground:

  • Choose plants whose buds haven’t started to open. Plant them in a larger pot with fresh potting soil for display purposes, then, at the end of the season plant them directly in the ground. 
  • Mums need full sun 5-6 hours daily.
  • Mums need rich well drained soil, so add compost to the soil when planting.
  • After blooming is finished cut the plant back to about 10cm from the ground. (Or wait and do this in the spring )
  • Mums have shallow roots, so it’s important to mulch them well with several inches of mulch to keep the roots from heaving through the freeze thaw cycles of winter. If you see that they have heaved, just push them back into the ground.
  • They also need lots of water, so keep them well watered in the pots as well when you put them in the ground

If you’ve been successful and the mums survive the winter, the operative word here is “if” as they have been forced into the wonderful growth we see. So, if they survive:

  1. As they are susceptible to mildew, they need plenty of air circulation, and morning sun to dry the dew from the leaves. Don’t plant them where they will be boxed in.
  2. Once they have reached a height of 15cm pinch the new growth back to encourage side shoots and more fall flowering. This can be done a few times until mid to late June.
  3. Keep the plants well-watered and fertilized with a 5-10-10 fertilizer.
  4. Enjoy another burst of colour from these amazing plants the next fall.

You may also want to keep an eye out at the garden centres in the spring for perennial Chrysanthemums that you can grow in your garden. There are many beautiful cultivars in a wide range of colours and sizes that will keep your fall flower bed looking spectacular.

Links:

https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/gardening/a20705668/growing-mums/

https://www.gardendesign.com/flowers/mums.html

Trees for the Understory

by Lois Scott, Master Gardener

This year the overstory (forest canopy) was clearly a showstopper. The beautiful fall colour can certainly outshine the understory that grows beneath, however the understory has its own beauty and this is where the greatest diversity is found. The understory is comprised of the vegetation that grows beneath the canopy including “seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with specialist understory trees, shrubs and herbs”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Understory

In our urban landscape a natural understory can be largely missing, particularly in our urban gardens. In my own garden, along with an increasing number of native herbs and shrubs I have included a few native, “specialist” understory trees to increase diversity. They grow well in the shade of neighbouring canopy trees, will all tolerate urban conditions and are worthy substitutes to many for the non-native horticultural varieties.

Blue BeechCarpinus caroliniana  aka American Hornbeam, Ironwood, Musclewood

This tree has a blue tinged bark that is hard and smooth with a sinewy appearance.  It grows up to 8 metres high with a low and spreading habit.  It prefers deep, rich moist soils and will tolerate some flooding.  Although is prefers shade it will tolerate full sun with enough moisture.  Squirrels and birds will eat the seeds and flowers.  The leaves turn a beautiful reddish copper colour in the fall.  Mammals avoid browsing twigs and branches due to their unpalatable taste.

Blue Beech

IronwoodOstrya virginiana aka Hop-Hornbeam

Although the Ironwood tree shares a similar common name to the Blue Beech these are two distinct trees.  The Ironwood grows up to 12 metres with a wide spreading crown and long slender branches.  It is very adaptable and will grow in full sun to full shade.  It prefers well drained to slightly dry soils and is an excellent tree for an urban area.

Ironwood

Pagoda DogwoodCornus alternifolia

The Pagoda Dogwood is a small graceful tree with a flat, layered appearance growing up to 10 metres.  It prefers moist, well drained soil.  It has beautiful white fluffy spring flowers that mature into blue, berry like fruits that are attractive to a wide variety of birds.  It is also a butterfly larval host.

Canadian ServiceberryAmelanchier canadensis 

The Canadian Serviceberry grows up to 8 metres. It bears elongated clusters of white showy flowers in spring followed by red berries that birds devour. It is drought tolerant and will grow in both shade and sun.

https://www.greenup.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/2019May15_EcologyParkCatalogueMasterDraft.pdf

https://www.yourleaf.org/blog/jen-vander-vecht/jul-15-2015/seeing-understory-through-trees

Spring bulbs, plant them now!

By Cheryl Harrison, Master Gardener

Nothing compares to walking through a garden in spring with the heady scent of hyacinths wafting through the air!  Hyacinths not only have an incredible fragrance but they also have beautiful blooms and glossy green strap-like leaves. Their wonderfully scented flowers provide early nectar for pollinators.  They bloom in spring (mid-March – early May) and their flowers come in a rainbow of colours. Another great thing about hyacinths, they are deer and rabbit resistant.  For more, check here Hyacinth.

We are all familiar with tulips but did you know that there are now so many varieties that you may plant a tulip garden that begins blooming in early spring and may continue into June depending on the planting location and variety.  Tulips too come in a multitude of colours and shapes … some are also fragrant.  Unfortunately, squirrels and chipmunks appear to love the taste of tulip bulbs so try covering them with chicken wire, or try sprinkling the planting site with bone meal or chicken manure, to keep the little critters away.  For more, check here Tulips.

Daffodils, also known by the fancier name narcissus, are long lived often continuing to appear each spring at old homesteads well after the original inhabitants have moved on.  They too come in many varieties with different flower shapes and colours including yellow, white, red, orange, green or pink.  Daffodils will grow in sun or shade and naturalize amazingly well.  Also good to know that daffodils are not of interest to squirrels or chipmunks and, when planted interspersed among other more susceptible bulbs, may help to keep rodents away.  For more, check here Daffodils.

The diminutive Muscari, or grape hyacinth, are not a variety of hyacinth although they are in the same family.  Muscari also readily naturalize. Because of their small size, plant lots for the best spring show.  For more, check here Muscari.

Snowdrops are another diminutive plant that will be the first bulb to bloom in your garden perhaps even through the snow as their name suggests.  For more, check here Snowdrops.

Alliums bloom late spring to early summer so a bit later than many of the bulbs already discussed.  Their unusual flowers can be quite striking as their globe shapes nod in the breeze.  Don’t be surprised if you purchase an allium to find that they are usually sold singly and may be more expensive than many other bulbs.  For more, check here Alliums.

Bulb Care

Most spring flowering bulbs are planted in the fall (September or October) before the ground freezes. 

Purchase the largest, best quality bulbs that you can find.  Large bulbs have lots of food energy for the emerging plant which will result in strong stems and large flowers.  Avoid bulbs that appear to be soft, damaged or discoloured.  Check on the product package to make sure that you have chosen bulbs  that will grow in your zone.  If you don’t know your gardening zone, find it here Canadian Gardening Zones

Plant bulbs in full sun (6-8 hours/day) to produce the largest blooms and strong straight stems.  However, many will flower in light shade … blooms may not be as large and stems may not be as strong.

Follow the package directions for planting your bulbs.

Bulbs need time after blooming to store energy for the next year. To remove the dead leaves, either snip them off at the base, or twist the leaves while pulling gently.

Some bulbs will not flower as robustly the second year eg. hyacinths.  Some gardeners treat these as annuals, removing the bulbs after flowering and planting fresh bulbs each fall.  Note that many bulbs are toxic so store them appropriately so that your pets or little people are not able to access them.

Plant them now!  A spring garden with a mixture of different bulbs looks lovely!  Plant bulbs along a path or close to your home’s entrance to be able to enjoy their dramatic scent.  They will also add a burst of colour to your perennial garden before other early flowers are up. A mass planting of spring flowering bulbs will make a bold statement in your garden!

Planting garlic (Allium sativum)

By Sharleen Pratt, Master Gardener

Happy Thanksgiving! While we navigate through this pandemic, we hope that you will be able to enjoy some happy moments in a safe and healthy environment. The colours have been beautiful this year and I have marveled at the many different shades of red, orange, yellow and green that still exist in my small urban backyard.

Photo credit: Sharleen Pratt

Thanksgiving reminds me that it is time to plant garlic for next years’ harvest. Here is a ‘Fact Sheet’ that I have put together for those who might be interested in planting this very easy to grow root vegetable.

PLANT DESCRIPTION:

Garlic is part of the Onion Family (Alliaceae) and although there are hundreds of varieties, they all fall under two main categories; Hardneck and Softneck.

Hardneck have a long flowering stem called a scape which eventually develops tiny bulbils at its top end. They usually have a single row of cloves and tend to do best in colder climates. They peel easier than softneck but do not store as long. They last approximately 4 to 6 months.

Softnecks are best for warmer climates, will last 9 to 12 months and have more than one row of cloves in each head. They do not develop a flowering stalk or scape. Softneck garlic are the type that are used to make garlic braids.

Elephant Garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is a type of leek that is grown like garlic, but is 6 to 7 times bigger and has a milder flavour.

PLANTING NEEDS:

Full sun and well-drained soil with infrequent watering.

WHEN TO PLANT:

In the Peterborough area, October is the best month to plant your garlic. It can be done in early spring but you will produce a larger harvest if done in the previous Fall. Do not use garlic from your local grocery store as it may not be the best variety for your region and it’s often treated with an anti-sprouting chemical to inhibit growth. I purchase my garlic from my local nursery or Farmer’s Market and I also use my own garlic that was harvested in early August.

Photo credit: Sharleen Pratt

HOW TO PLANT:

Separate the inner cloves but do not remove the papery covering. Plant the largest cloves with the pointy end up. Space cloves five to six inches apart and two to three inches deep. You can mulch with straw, but I always mulch the garlic bed with shredded leaves which will be plentiful in the next couple of weeks.

CHALLENGES:

I have never had any garlic concerns; however, my daughter did deal with the leek moth this year. Adult moths lay their eggs and the hatched larvae tunnel into the leaves. She was able to keep it under control by going out each morning and removing the leaves that were encasing the larvae. If you have the space, it is always best to rotate your garlic each year.

HARVESTING SCAPES:

Garlic produces a garlic scape which appear on hardneck varieties, usually in June. They look a little like green onions that spiral and have a small bulbil at the end (which looks like a small hat). They should be cut once you see the spiral or they will become tougher the longer you leave them. Cut it at the base where it comes out of the stalk. Chop them up and fry with a little olive oil or they can be made into garlic scape pesto. It is wise to remove the scapes even if you don’t plan on eating them. This allows the energy to go back into growing the underground bulb.

HARVESTING GARLIC:

You will know your plant is ready to harvest when two to three sets of the bottom leaves have died or turned yellow. Do not leave them too long as the bulb will begin to split. Gently pull out the bulbs with a garden fork.

CURING GARLIC:

Garlic needs to be dried. Gently remove the dirt and trim the dangling white roots to approximately 1 cm. I tie my garlic together in bunches and hang it in my shed to dry for two weeks. Keep it out of direct sunlight and ensure it doesn’t get wet.

STORAGE:

Once dried, clean gently. Trim the long stalk off and store in a cool dry area. Garlic does not like to be refrigerated. You could also store them in empty egg cartons.

If you would like to learn more about growing garlic, read this extensive article from the Ontario Ministry.

Beware the caterpillar

By Suzanne Seryck, Master Gardener

Fall is my favourite time of the year to bicycle; not too hot and the scenery on trails in the Kawartha Lakes is beautiful. Asters and golden rod are in full bloom; the sumacs and Virginia creeper are just turning red, whilst the maple trees are slowly turning various shades of orange, yellow, red and brown. My only problem is trying to miss all the caterpillars, grasshoppers, and chipmunks, not to mention the odd rabbit or snake that crosses my path. I can’t count the number of times I have almost ended up in a ditch.  Everything mostly jumps or slithers out of my way, though, with the exception of the woolly bear caterpillars.

Photo taken by author whilst out riding

You would think that these caterpillars would be fairly easy to spot, but at this time of year, and probably at my age too, I tend to have problems distinguishing them from leaves, especially from a distance. The caterpillars normally emerge around this time of year, slowly inching their way across the paths.

Picture of woolly bear caterpillar (taken by author)

The woolly bear caterpillar will emerge from its larva in the fall, and overwinter in its caterpillar form. It does this by finding a safe spot to hibernate under leaves or bark or inside rocks or logs and then freezing solid. It is able to survive being frozen by producing a cryoprotectant, which is a substance that protects its tissue from freezing. The search for a safe hibernation spot is why you see so many of these caterpillars crossing roads and paths.

In the spring the caterpillar will wake up hungry, eat for a few days and then spin a cocoon emerging after a couple of weeks into an Isabella Gypsy Moth.

There are many old wives tales that specify that the size of the brown bands in the middle of the caterpillar or the number of brown bands will determine how hard a winter we will have. This was investigated in 1948 by Dr. C. H Curran who was the Curator of insects at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. To read more about this, please refer to the following article: https://www.almanac.com/content/woolly-bear-caterpillars-and-weather-prediction

Whilst I eagerly await the time when all the caterpillars have finished crossing roads and paths and begun their hibernation, I will continue my daily bike rides looking down at the paths whilst attempting to ensure that I do not cycle into any more ditches.

For additional information, the following is an interesting article: https://blogs.massaudubon.org/yourgreatoutdoors/why-did-the-woolly-bear-cross-the-road/