Category Archives: Garden Design

Becoming the Caretaker of your Garden

By Suzanne Seryck, Master Gardener

I first heard the term to be ‘caretaker of your garden’ at a permaculture course a few years ago. It has resonated with me ever since and has changed both the way in which I garden and also the way that I perceive my garden. Being the “caretaker of your garden” means that while you own the land that your garden is on, it is only temporary. You are, in fact, simply looking after that piece of land for a relatively short period of time before passing it on.

For me, being the caretaker of my garden makes me consider the longevity of the garden, what takes away from the health of the garden and what gives back to the garden; how to feed not just my family but also the wildlife whilst providing safe habitats; how to make the garden more self-sustainable reducing my time spent pruning, weeding, and imposing my unnatural demands on the garden thus allowing myself more time to simply enjoy the garden. For most of us, we are already doing the groundwork for this change already–it is simply a shift in the way we view ownership of our garden, or more specifically, the plot of land the garden sits on.

The following are some of the practices that I follow:

  • A healthy garden always starts with healthy soil. I amend my soil annually with leaf compost. I have 2 large leaf composters in my back garden which I fill with bags of leaves I collect from neighbours. I also mulch up approximately 20 bags of leaves and spread these liberally over my vegetable and perennial gardens in the fall.

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  • I cut back very little in my garden in the fall mainly just anything that is diseased. In the spring I cut everything up into 1-2 inch pieces and drop them back on the garden. This also acts as a mulch as well as amending the soil.
  • Plants that have multiple uses are important to me. This may be because I have a small garden; multiple functions can include fix nitrogen, use as a fertilizer, be edible or medicinal etc. as well as aesthetically pleasing.
  • Including vegetable plants in the perennial bed. I will often do this if I run out of room in my vegetable beds, however a lot of vegetable plants have amazing foliage and are great to line paths and place in the front of beds.
  • Recently I have made efforts to increase diversity in my small garden, increasing the number of native plants. Native plants are generally hardier, more adapted to our climate and require less maintenance; they also tend to attract more wildlife and pollinators.
  • I try to water as little as possible using rain barrels as much as I can.  I must admit that any plants that do require more water, or in fact more maintenance of any kind, tend to be replaced fairly quickly.ironweed suzanne

For anyone who has not heard of permaculture, it is a set of guidelines, principles and practices for sustainable living and land use. When you narrow down permaculture to your home garden, you are in effect looking at a more sustainable, natural method of gardening mimicking that found in nature to create a cohesive garden, in which all elements benefit, nurture and interconnect with each other. Whilst that does sound like a fairly lofty aspiration, the good news is that just by implementing or adding a couple of permaculture practices can have a significant impact on your garden, but that sounds like a blog for another day.

For me the term ‘being caretaker of your garden’ and the reasoning behind it align with my passion and concern regarding climate change and environmentalism. Whilst the changes I make may only have a small impact these type of changes can add up and often lead to something bigger.

For further information on permaculture:

Spring Flowering Bulbs

By Sharleen Pratt, Master Gardener

Charles Dickens said “Nature gives to every time and season some beauties of its own”. Who can deny that spring-flowering bulbs are a promise of warmer temperatures and hopeful thoughts? Knowing the bulbs will emerge from the near frozen ground helps us to get through the bitter winter. They should be planted now in order for you to be rewarded with wonderful colour in early spring. They can stay in the ground year after year. There are several varieties of bulbs to choose from. The following are some of the more recognizable ones.

thumbnail_tulipsTulips are to Turkey and Central Asia. In the 1600s, they made their way to the Netherlands. Tulipmania took hold in the 1620s and tulip prices skyrocketed. A single bulb could be worth as much as an average family farm. The market collapsed in 1637, but tulips remain widely grown in the that country. Canadians liberated much of the Netherlands during the final months of the Second World War. More than 7,200 Canadians were lost in that conflict. The Dutch have gifted Canadians with 20,000 bulbs a year since that time and they are used in Ottawa’s now famous Canadian Tulip Festival every May. This year marks the 75th anniversary of liberation and the Dutch royal family will mark the celebration by thanking Canadians this year with a gift of 100,000 tulip bulbs. If you want to join the celebration, you can purchase your own Liberation75 tulips for $15.00 through the Royal Canadian Legion. By purchasing the bulbs, you will also be entitled to win a trip to the Netherlands. To place an order visit the Royal Canadian Legion.

There are hundreds of cultivars of tulips; early, mid and late blooming. They need a sunny location with soil that is well-drained and sheltered from the wind since they can be easily broken. Six weeks are needed for the foliage to die back in order to put energy back into the bulb. A rainy spring is bad for success with tulips. Some of the ‘old fashioned’ tulips are Darwin and Triumph. They are very reliable and come back year after year. Squirrels love tulips, so to deter rodents, mix tulips and daffodils together in order to get the scent of daffodils on the tulips. You can also try hen manure which comes in a pellet form. You could use barberry cuttings or crushed egg shells in and around the hole. Others have had success with plastic snakes. Also, squirrels won’t dig past their peripheral vision, so plant at least 6 – 8” deep. You could also try laying a flat board on top and remove it when the ground is frozen.

DaffodilsDaffodils and narcissus bloom earlier than most tulips. Spring sun is needed and they like soil that is well draining or they will rot. Oxalic acid on the bulb make them unpalatable to rodents. ‘Tete a tete’ is a mini daffodil that is very fragrant and also good for cut flowers. However, never include daffodils with other flowers in a vase as they have a sap that will cause the other flowers to wilt.

IMG_4638Alliums are ornamental onions. Most of the varieties bloom in June. They need free draining soil with 6 to 8 hours of sun. They make lovely dried flowers. It is best to plant alliums amongst other plants as the foliage is not desirable.

Muscari or grape hyacinths are amazing small bulbs known as minor bulbs. Snowdrops are also minor bulbs and are the first to emerge, often pushing up through the snow.

Snow crocus are an early blooming crocus and work well in a lawn as they bloom before you need to cut the grass. Dutch crocus are good for forcing and are bigger than snow crocus and tend to bloom a little later in the spring.

Beware of Scilla or Spanish blue bells! They are a small bulb and multiply prolifically, and although they are very pretty, they now sit on the invasive list. Scilla siberica is on the Highly Invasive category of this list put together by Credit Valley Conservation.

Bulbs can also be planted in pots and put in a cool area over the winter. This way, they can be brought in and forced to bloom early. Who wouldn’t be happy with a large pot of beautiful colour after a long hard winter. More information on forcing spring bulbs can be found in this article by Dugald Cameron in Garden Making Magazine.

Happy Planting!

Scree Gardening

By Cheryl Harrison, Master Gardener

My casual interest in scree gardens became a burning desire to have one (you know the feeling) when I went on my first Peterborough Master Gardener garden tour in 2017. We visited a nursery that had amazing demonstration scree and rock gardens. I was smitten!

A scree garden is found in nature. Small rocks and gravel travel down the side of a mountain because of the freeze-thaw action on the rockface. This material accumulates in crevices, on rock shelves and at the mountain base. It drains well and is home to plants that survive on only rain. Scree gardens are good for areas that are already rocky, sandy or do not have a lot of soil to begin with. However, they can be replicated pretty much anywhere with a raised bed to ensure good drainage. A raised bed is especially important if you have clay soil. Choose a sunny site that is not overshadowed by trees. You don’t want the constant challenge of leaf litter on your garden. As when creating any new garden, make sure all weeds and grass are removed before you start.

Different sources quote different mixes for the actual garden “soil” to use in your raised bed. I used what I had for mine. This consisted of some larger rocks in the bottom, and then a layer of gravel, then mostly sand, and gravel mixed with some garden soil. The sand, gravel, and garden soil mixture was used to fill the spaces in the rocks up to the top of my raised bed. Remember that you are trying to replicate nature so your scree must have excellent drainage and not be overly rich.

I chose plants that I knew could take dryer soils and thrive in my Southern Ontario garden with it’s summer heat and high humidity. There are lots of lists of potential scree and rock garden plants on the internet. Some local nurseries carry plants that will thrive in well drained conditions. Once that you have found plants that will grow, as with any garden, choose plants that will give you the look that you want ie. colour, texture, height and spread.

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Author’s garden

In her book “Pocket Gardening”, gardening writer Marjorie Harris talks about how to maintain the scree and rock gardens. Ms. Harris recommends topdressing the garden with leaf mold and coarse sharp sand or 3/8 inch gravel when plants are dormant which means very early spring or late fall.

Have fun with it and make your garden into what makes you happy!

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Author’s garden

Resources

Anna’s Perennials –  Ontario Rock Garden & Hardy Plant Society –  Rock Wall Gardens

Adding Diversity to Garden Design

By Suzanne Seryck, Master Gardener

In June this year, I was sitting with my son on the deck looking at the backyard. He asked me why I had so much grass in the garden. Now, he is definitely not a gardener, so I was a little confused until I realized he was referring to all of the daylily leaves. I felt it my duty to point out the stunning delphiniums, peonies, irises, and lupins which were all in bloom. I also tried to explain that in another month or so the garden will be a riot of colour when all the daylilies and coneflowers started flowering. Daylilies have always been my favourite plants; they are hardy, drought tolerant, low maintenance and beautiful in bloom. See our blog post from July 22 describing how daylilies are the perfect perennial. I probably have at least fifty different varieties, all of which I bought over from my last garden four years ago. But as I sat there looking at the garden I did wonder if maybe I should add more diversity.

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Author’s garden in late spring

Shortly after, I was watching my new favourite garden show on Netflix, ‘Big Dreams, Small Spaces’ with Monty Don. If you have not heard of him, Monty Don is something close to a hero to most British gardeners. In this episode, he was relaying a gardening principle to the couple that were designing their new backyard.  He mentioned that for simplicity and cohesiveness “no garden needs more than seven different plants”.  I was trying to remember where the back button was on the remote as I wasn’t sure I’d heard correctly, but he did partially redeem himself when he clarified that statement by saying that you do not have to take this too literally, but that a good garden can be made with just seven different plants. My current garden design is more of an English cottage garden, informal with little space between plants and if I was going to add more diversity this summer, I would definitely have more than seven different plants.

I spent this summer with pen and paper in hand walking around the garden, asking myself if I really needed 20 different variations of pink daylily, some of which even I struggled to tell apart or did I need the same daylily variety in four different places in the garden. I also noticed the daylily blooms had very few insects compared to the spectacular activity around the native plants. I made copious notes in my notebook and labelled many plants I wanted to move or give away. Because of a rising concern for environmentalism and climate change, I also wanted this to be reflected more in my garden. To do this I decided I needed to do the following:

  • Plant more native plants. I have collected seed from most of my native plants including swamp milkweed, culver’s root and liatris and will use these to fill in over the next few years.
  • Add more edibles to the perennial garden. I tend to edge with swiss chard, beets or cardoon. I don’t actually eat the cardoon but I love the foliage on the plant.
  • Choose more plants that have multiple functions, i.e. yarrow which attracts insects, is drought tolerant, is a nutrient accumulator bringing nutrients from deep in the soil and storing them in the leaves, has attractive flowers in many colors, and can be used as a manure tea.
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Author’s garden in summer

I’m excited for next year to see the changes I’ve made. I’m hoping that I have still kept the basic structure of the garden design with the emphasis on the summer color whilst adding more variety, especially pollinator and native plants. I learned this summer that a garden design does not have to be static; it can evolve as your values and beliefs evolve.

The design of your garden can be very personal, ever changing, reflecting who you are. For me it is somewhere where I feel at peace with the world–there is nothing I like more than taking a cup of tea out to the garden in the morning and just sitting and looking around.

Bulbs for All Seasons

In the next few weeks, autumn will arrive and garden centres will fill their shelves with mums, ornamental cabbages and other fall flowers. And spring flowering bulbs will be available too! Spring bulbs like tulips and daffodils are planted in our gardens in the fall and appear the next spring.

There is an upcoming opportunity to learn more about flowering bulbs when Dugald Cameron, former owner of GardenImport, speaks at ‘BULBS FOR ALL SEASONS’ presented by the Peterborough Master Gardeners. Victoria Whitney of Griffins Greenhouses will also speak on spring bulbs. This event happens on Saturday, September 28th at Westdale United Church on Sherbrooke St. It runs from 9 am to 3:30 pm and includes lunch. There will be bulbs for sale as well as a demonstration.

Get your early bird ticket this week by contacting Margaret at 705-876-1771 or mahiggins@sympatico.ca.  [ PMG Bulbs for all Seasons Registration Form .pdf]

bulbs poster final 2019

The Light in Your Garden

by Chris Freeburn, Master Gardener

Growing any plant successfully in your garden depends on many factors and an important one is the amount of light you get throughout the day. Growing Hosta out in the blazing sunshine is fine when they first emerge in springtime, but most Hosta will fry with the hot summer sun all day long. A peony without enough sun will have lovely green leaves, but will probably not give you any flowers.

Take a day or two to notice when your flower beds are in sun and for how long. Full sun means at least 6 hours of sun a day. Full shade means no direct sun. Part sun should only be about 3 hours. Morning sun is the best as it is not harsh and hot like late afternoon sun, so if you have gardens facing east, you have the best light for most plants.

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Knowing which direction your home sits is important too. Get your orientation fixed in your mind. Remember that trees and buildings will shade the gardens as the sun moves throughout the day. As the seasons change, the sun will move slightly in its orientation and where the sunlight comes from will change. Be prepared when you go plant shopping, read plant tags and talk to experts to be sure you are putting the right plant in the right place for the right light requirements.

Like growing just outside your garden growing zones, gardeners can also grow outside sun requirements. Hybridizing has enabled us to have plants that will grow outside their normal light needs. For instance, there are now Hosta that will take a lot of sun. Try to stretch the limits if you want that certain plant in that certain place, but remember to monitor it to be sure it is not being stressed and is performing at its best.

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Lighting may change in your garden. If a big tree is removed, a full shade garden can become a full sun garden. As a tree grows in your or your neighbour’s yard, or if a new building goes up, it will become more shaded. You may find that you will have to relocate plants when this happens.

Spend more time in your garden, just watching. It is good for your education and good for your soul.

Moisture Tolerant Perennials

by Cheryl Harrison, Master Gardener

So far, spring 2019 has been one of almost continuous rainfall in southern Ontario. The following plants do not demand boggy soil and are hardy in the regular garden. However, they are all moisture tolerant and are a good choice for poolside or boggy plantings.

Lady’s Mantle (Alchemilla mollis) – I love this plant! It looks especially pretty when planted with hostas and bleeding heart…almost a woodland garden without the trees! Lady’s mantle can take sun, sun/part shade and light shade. They can handle dry or very moist soil. They produce frothy, green flowers that look good in fresh, or dried bouquets. Lady’s mantle is one of those plants that acts as a ground cover with its “mantle” of leaves that grow 30-45 cm. (12-15 in.) high. After a rain, the water droplets will bead and sparkle on the fuzzy leaf surfaces.

Bleeding Heart (Lamprocapnos spectabilis formerly Dicentra spectabilis) – Bleeding heart is one of those old-fashioned flowers that was probably in your grandmother’s garden. It grows to about 30-120 cm. (12-47 in.) high. It will keep flowering from spring and into the summer in moist soil. However, it may go dormant, and disappear, if the soil stays dry but will then re-grow again the following spring. Flowers are an unusual shape and may be pink and white or just plain white.

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Lady’s mantle foreground, Bleeding heart background. From the author’s garden.

Joe Pye Weed (Eutrochium purpureum formerly Eupatorium purpureum) – According to one folklore source, this native plant gets it’s name from a colonial-era, indigenous healer named Joe Pye who used the weed to cure fever. This plant grows tall, 100-200 cm (39-78 in) high. With its whorled, lance-shaped leaves and purple flowers, it can be quite an exclamation point in a moist garden.

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Joy Pye weed with visitor.

Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia) – Creeping jenny is one of those plants that you may grow to hate if it gets loose in an area that provides its ideal growing conditions. I like this plant because it is a great ground cover in the moist garden or as a “spiller” in a patio pot of mixed plants. Its brightly coloured chartreuse leaves will draw your attention to a sun/part shade area of the garden. Creeping jenny spreads by rhizomes and grows very low to the ground at just 5-10 cm. (2-4 In.).

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Creeping jenny in the author’s garden.

Queen-of-the-Prairie (Filipendula rubra) – I only recently discovered this plant when a friend gave me a seedling from her garden. I have it planted along side our pond where it should do well in the moist to wet soil. This plant can be quite spectacular as it may grow to be as much as 245 cm. (8 ft.) high. I am expecting it to have a pale pink, fragrant flower. I can hardly wait!

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photo courtesy of Sugar Creek Gardens 

So, don’t fight mother nature, use plants that can survive and thrive in the moist garden!

For more information Landscape Ontario has a great resource here.

Beyond the Plentiful — 5 Unusual Perennials

By Mary-Jane Pilgrim, Master Gardener

Last week, my colleague Emma Murphy wrote about her 5 favourite perennials (Day lilies, Blanket Flower, Coneflower/Echinacea, Asters and Rudbeckia/Black-Eyed Susans).  Those are definitely cool plants, and are generally well-behaved and easy to maintain.

In this article, I’d like to introduce you to five unusual plants that I’ve grown to love and will pick up new varieties whenever I see them.

1. Epimedium also known as Barrenwort

Think “light and airy”.  These plants are delicate, light-shade loving plants that make excellent companions to hosta due to their very different but complimentary leaf structure.  Their flowers are tiny but extremely detailed.  They look great all summer.

epimedium collage

2. Eremurus also known as Fox Tail LilyIMG_20140625_160657

Tall and dramatic.  Guaranteed to prompt “Wooooooow! What are those” responses.  These plants grow in full sun, in well-drained soil and will not tolerate anything soggy.  It’s not a plant you’ll likely see blooming in a garden centre but if you watch for it, many places do carry it.  It’s a hardy bulb that does not need to be lifted and will multiply year after year to form a stunning clump.  I have orange and yellow varieties, and am on the lookout for white.

3. Athyrium known as Lady Ferns

Ferns are perfect for the shade garden. Lacy fronds soften the texture of other go-to shade classics like Hosta, Astilbe and Tiarella. Ferns like a light to medium shade setting with loamy soil with lots of leaf mold.   A few of my favourites are Dre’s Dagger, Japanese Painted.  A relative is the Maidenhair fern which is delicate and striking.ferns

4. Sempervivum also known as Hens & ChicksIMG_2187

These plants give and give and give.  They look great all year round.   They come in hundreds of colours.  They’re easy to propagate (pull off a chick and replant).  The only thing that I don’t like about this plant is their flower stalk — which I generally remove and it doesn’t seem to harm the plant at all.  They will fill in tightly together, leaving zero room for weeds.  Mix a bunch of colours together and see what happens!

5. Hellebore also known as Lenten Rose

These are stunning in the early spring, right around Lent which is where their name comes from. Unfortunately, many garden centres don’t stock them or may not stock them in future because they bloom before most people show up at the garden centres looking for plants.  I like them because their leaves are often patterned, but they’re always thick & leathery — and they look great right through the summer.  They’re a definite must for a serious gardener.hellebore

I know I said 5 unusual favourites.  But as a gardener, there’s never a finite number of any kind of plant, right?  I always have “n+1” favourites.

6. Saxifrage also known as RockfoilSaxifraga_paniculata_1_lg

Whenever I come across these at a garden centre, it’s an easy decision.  Into the cart!  They are well-behaved, unique and have interesting patterning in their leaves.  Their flowers are mostly inconspicuous — I grow them for their foliage.  Many spread into mats that are geometrically-intricate.   I have yet to come across one of these that have disappointed me.

My favourite places to get unique perennials?  Garden Plus, Peterborough.  Anna’s Perennials, Omemee. Lost Horizons, Acton. Griffins Greenhouse, Lakefield.   Take some time when you go.  Browse.  Ask questions.  ALWAYS google before you buy because the plant tag won’t tell you everything.  Watch out for the words “aggressive”, “self-seeding”,  and “vigorous”.  Always check the climate zone.  Peterborough is Canadian zone 5b.  Add one zone to anything American or that you expect might be American.  Experiment and enjoy the results.

 

The Peterborough Garden Show

By Mary-Jane Pilgrim, Master Gardener

It’s coming in 25 days.  It can’t come soon enough.  In our city, “The Garden Show” is a true sign of spring.  It’s an occasion that brings together speakers, workshop leaders, vendors, horticultural society members, master gardeners, exhibitors and many others for one reason:  “For the Love of Gardening”.PGS-logo-small

This year marks the 19th fantastic show: 
April 26 – 28, 2019 (Friday 5-9pm, Saturday 10am-5pm & Sunday 10am-4pm).

And there’s great news ! The show has MOVED – to Fleming College’s brand new Trades and Technology Centre on Brealey Drive with lots of FREE parking and a $10, one-price ticket so you can enjoy the show all weekend.

The Peterborough and Area Master Gardeners will have a booth at the show, and will be happy to answer any gardening questions that you may have. Watch for our red aprons!

The theme “Coming Up Roses” is reflected in several of the amazing speakers along with educational and fun workshops and demos.

This award-winning show was honoured in 2017 with both a “Canada 150 Garden Experience”, and “Garden Event of the Year” by the Canadian Garden Council, so come and see what all the fuss is about.

You will find many of your old favourite vendors along with some new ones.

…and don’t forget the popular “Little Green Thumbs” Children’s Garden that is always teaming with liveliness and action! There are learning activities, face painting, crafts and even a take-home project. Their theme this year is “Miniature Gardens for Elves and Fairies”.

All the show profits go back into our community to fund scholarships for post-secondary students studying in horticulture-related fields,various local projects & Community Gardens.  Since 2002, the show has put over $200,000 back into our community.

Please save the date, visit and and learn why “Everything’s Coming Up Roses” in 2019.

Learn more about the incredible speakers, workshops, bus trips, places to stay and tickets here: peterboroughgardenshow.com.

 

Book Review: 50 Beautiful Deer-Resistant Plants

By Christine Freeburn, Master Gardener

50 Beautiful Deer-Resistant Plants – The Prettiest Annuals, Perennials, Bulbs, and Shrubs that Deer Don’t Eat

by Ruth Rogers Clausen, Published by Thomas Allen 2011, ISBN 9781604691955

Although this is an American publication, the author lives in New York state which is a similar zone to our own. A short introduction explains how to read the Quick Look charts which list zone hardiness (remember these are American zones), height and spread of plant, and deer-resistant rating for each of the 50 plants included. There are suggestions for commonly used controls such as barriers, repellants and home remedies. The author also gives some advice on planning a deer-resistant garden. wildlife-1367217_960_720

Chapters are divided by annuals, perennials, shrubs, ferns, bulbs, herbs and grasses with lovely photographs, growing tips and design ideas. Latin names are included to ensure you get the proper species and variety. An index, glossary and list of other books to ready are listed at the back of the book.

If you have deer who visit your garden and destroy your plants, you will want to read this book to give you some ideas and encouragement to have that beautiful garden. The book may be available in your local library or you can find it online at Indigo.ca.