Last year around this time I wrote a blog about reclaiming a garden bed from the dreaded ditch lily (Hemerocallis fulva), now considered an invasive species by many organizations including Ontario Parks and the US Fish & Wildlife Service and the U. S. National Park Service. If you’ve ever struggled with this plant you know what I mean.
The other plant growing in our large Lakefield garden when we moved in (more than 20 years ago) is what I was told was called an ‘outhouse plant‘. I eventually learned that the Latin name for this plant (also called golden glow or tall coneflower) was Rudbeckia laciniata “Hortensia”.
It’s a cultivar of our native Rudbeckia laciniata, also known as Cut Leaf Coneflower or Green Headed Coneflower, which has a lovely simple daisylike flower (whereas the Hortesia cultivar is a double ‘puffy’ flower).
The outhouse plant was pleasant enough so I let them grow for years in what I call our ‘back 40’, meaning our naturalized garden area at the back of the property, behind the cedar rail fence. Yes they were tall and gangly, and fell over in thunderstorms. Yes they spread, but they gave the prolific Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) and New England Asters (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) a run for their money in August/September. And hey, I had more than enough to deal with in the rest of my more organized garden!
However, as I started to learn more about both native (and invasive) plants over the years I realized that I might have a problem. The outhouse plant isn’t a huge problem per se, as it can be controlled through digging, Chelsea chop etc., but its double shape means that it offers minimal benefit as food for our pollinators. And I wanted plants that not only look beautiful but have an ecological benefit. So I sat in my hammock and pondered.
As a result of winter sowing (first time this past winter – highly recommend!) I have lots of new native plant seedlings, including some of the ones I featured in my May blog – A Few of My Favourite Native Plants – Culver’s Root (Veronicastrum Virginicum), Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis), and Green Headed Coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata). I certainly have lots of the native Rudbeckia, as well as Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), Giant Ironweed (Vernonia gigantea), and Purple Giant Hyssop (Agastache scrophulariifolia).
So the clearing of the outhouse plant began in earnest last week, and by the end of two afternoons I had an area to work with.
Definitely not light work, but not too difficult either compared to other plants. The area is now clear, and I’ll be putting in Green Headed Coneflower (the native), Boneset, Giant Ironweed, and Purple Giant Hyssop. They can all tolerate a little competition (a good thing for native plants, especially tall ones) and basic soils.
If I have space I might even mix in some shorter plants like native Bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera) and Pearly Everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea) in at the front as they can tolerate dry conditions. The area is mostly sunny all day. Unfortunately my beloved Cardinal Flower and Turtlehead are too dry for this location.
We’ll see how this experiment works and check back in with you all on another blog. If it works we’ll expand into another area of outhouse plant that I recently cut down, but haven’t removed yet…a work in progress. There are only so many hours in my (still working part time) day. And I still need to get that Canada Ggoldenrod under control…but that’s another story…
Although this may sound shocking to some and possibly enticing to others, the Naked Ladies in my garden are a welcome arrival at this time of year. It is not so much that they are truly naked, they are just minus their leaves. Naked Ladies, Autumn Crocus and Meadow Saffron are all common names for a bulb-like corm called Colchicum autumnale that produces leaves in the spring and flowers in the fall. Over the summer the plant appears dormant but by late August or early September it starts pushing up beautiful mauve flowers with 6 showy stamens, all atop white stems. Colchicumautumnale likes organically rich, well-drained soil and sun to part shade conditions. https://onrockgarden.com/index.php/plant-of-the-month?view=article&id=92:colchicum-autumnale&catid=22
This is a sentimental plant for me as years ago I dug up the corms from my grandparents’ garden. I remember they were still a mass of blooms at Thanksgiving. But as much as they mean to me, they can be a garden design challenge. The leaves that are produced in spring grow a good 25-30 cm and then go through a bit of a collapse as they die off. At that point you are left with a hole. The flowers grow to be about 15-20 cm tall and could easily be overwhelmed by larger plants around them. I have my most favourite site for them at the base of a Witchhazel shrub which is close to a garden bed edge. There are a few rocks surrounding the area where the plants are sited and otherwise, I leave the area bare. The photo I have included is a previous arrangement but I found the leaves in spring overwhelmed the Heuchera, so the heuchera have been moved out a bit. The other photo shows the leaves in spring.
You may find corms for sale in the fall or perhaps you know someone who wants to divide up their clump. They can easily be divided every few years and speaking for myself, I am happy to share. The ladies in my garden are trouble free and never disappoint.
At this time of year, it is difficult to get excited about spring when we know what must come first … fall then winter! However, late summer is exactly the time to think about spring bulbs because they must be planted in the fall in order to bloom the following spring.
As with all plants, you need to take into consideration the amount of light needed, soil and moisture requirements. Most bulbs require full sun to part shade, well drained loam soil and watering when dry. Note that bulbs may rot when over-watered.
Some sources suggest adding bone meal to the planting hole. Bone meal adds phosphorus to the soil which may encourage bulb growth but may also harm some of the other beneficial soil constituents. It is prudent to test your soil first.
Plant bulbs with the pointed end up and to a depth of 2-3 times the diameter of the bulb. You may sprinkle blood meal over the planting site or cover with chicken wire to discourage squirrels and chipmunks from digging them up.
Plant your spring flowering bulbs any time between September to December … as long as you are still able to work the ground.
Spring flowering bulbs are lovely in a formal garden as well as in more natural settings. For naturalization of spring bulbs, please see Bulbs for Naturalizing.
Now the really fun part, what to choose! Check at your local nursery to see what they have in stock and/or what they may be ordering in. Choose large, undamaged bulbs. It is also likely that your favourite on-line supplier carries spring flowering bulbs. I would suggest that you do this well before you plan to plant to ensure that you are able to get what you want.
Tulips – We are all familiar with the large colourful, showy tulips. Their blooms may be cup shaped, fringed, double or ruffled. This fall, I plan to plant some, new-to me species tulip bulbs. While species tulips are smaller than the tulips that we are most accustomed to, they are colourful, very hardy and have a more open flower.
Hyacinth – You can not beat the magnificent fragrance of hyacinth blooms in the spring. They come in several colours, single or double and are accompanied by strong, strappy leaves. Hyacinths also produce nectar so provide food for some of our early foraging pollinators.
Narcissus – The spring flowering bulb, in the genus Narcissus, is more commonly called a daffodil. Bloom colours range from bright yellow to cream to white and combinations of these colours. Daffodils are cheerful flowers. I always smile when I see them especially in a natural setting.
Crocus – Crocus “bulbs” are actually corms. What is the difference??, check here. These are probably the first of the fall plantings that you will see in the spring. Crocus blooms are tube shaped and come in various colours. The plant is low growing and does well when naturalized.
The above are some of the more often seen spring flowering bulbs but there are more. Please see Landscape Ontario for additional suggestions.
It’s been a tough few years for all of us because of COVID-19, but I had time to reflect this weekend on why it’s been hard for me as a gardener. While it’s been wonderful to have our gardens as an oasis and source of comfort during the pandemic, I realized that other than a few close friends, no one had seen all the work (and the results) that my husband Grant and I had achieved over that time.
So it was with great anticipation that we looked forward to our Lakefield garden being featured on a garden tour organized as a fundraiser to celebrate 60 years of theLakefield Horticultural Society.
While we spent a few very crazy days trying to put the final touches on our garden (my husband decided he would build a beautiful pergola [awesome] a week before the event [not so awesome] so plants had to be moved into pots and then back into the beds just a few days before) — sorry I digress — everything was perfect on the day — the weather was spectacular, we placed the last bits of mulch to cover a few empty patches and we looked forward to welcoming our guests.
As the first people arrived (I think our first visitor was a man on a bicycle!) I began to realize how much I had missed the joy of sharing our gardens with others. And as the day progressed, it was wonderful to hear other people’s perceptions — for some it was inspiring, for some a bit overwhelming (we have a 3/4 acre property in a small village), for some they loved that we had plants they had never seen before (not your typical garden). Everyone seemed to leave with a smile on their face, which made our day.
Grant created numerous raised beds over the past few years — at my request — and we’ve had great success with them. We also purchased a “COVID present” for ourselves — a long wished-for greenhouse to extend our gardening season, and it’s been put to good use.
We’ve spent time over the past few years planting more native plants as I learn more about the benefits of creating habitat as well as having an aesthetically pleasing garden. Hey, it’s not all about me!! Doug Tallamy’s book is a great start to understanding the benefits we can provide in our humble gardens to the greater ecosystem.
There is definitely a balance — we’re aiming for a 50/50 balance of native/non-native — because I love my daylilies and peonies and don’t want to give them up (they give me pleasure), but I also love the hundreds of pollinators (bees, butterflies, wasps etc.) that flock to my Common Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), Pearly Everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea), Cup Plant (Silphium perfoliatum), and Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis) because I am choosing to plant native plants.
Last winter I grew some native (and non-native) plants using the Winter Sowing technique (because most native plant seed requires winter/cold stratification) and it was a great success (with some lessons learned – but that’s another blog).
Grant set up a Plant Sale area for the garden tour and people were able to buy plants that they saw in the garden (although alas, I did not take any cuttings on my amazing orangeButterfly Weed – a type of milkweed – which really caught everyone’s attention).
Over the day I saw many gardening friends I hadn’t seen in several years, and made all sorts of new friends. It felt like my community was coming together — like we were reconnecting after a long time apart in a beautiful place. And I realized that gardening is both a solitary and a very social activity. We even got featured in the local newspaper.
We raised funds to support our local horticultural society, we got back to feeling ‘a bit normal’, and most importantly we got to reconnect with people over a common passion — the love of gardening.
I hope that all of you will find opportunities to reconnect with people this summer and share your gardens and plants and trade stories about attracting pollinators etc. with others. It’s a feeling like no other. #happygardening
June brings a great show of Bearded Iris into the garden. Iris germanica flower in spring and although the bloom time seems short, the big colourful blooms are breath taking. Iris come in different heights, have big showy flowers in lots of fabulous colours and their elongated fan-like leaves give a different shape in the mixed border. There are 3 parts of the flower – “standards” which are the 3 upright petals, “falls” which are the lower petals usually hanging down and the “beard” which is the fuzzy hairs and is often yellow in colour. There are many varieties available, with colours ranging from shades of blue, purple, pink, peach, orange and combinations of colours where standards are one colour and falls another. Stunning!
Iris want a sunny location facing south or west, in well drained soil. They do not want to sit in water and will rot if they are too wet. Iris have rhizomes which produce roots to hold the plant in place and draw up water and nutrients. Rhizomes want their tops to be near the surface of the soil or slightly exposed, especially in heavy soil. A heavily mulched bed will not work for iris unless you leave a large area bare. Fertilize in early spring.
Dead-head flowers by cutting spent blossom stems right down, which encourages more bloom on rebloomers. Leaf fans should be cut back to 3” to 6” in the fall with sharp scissors.
Plants need to be divided every 3 to 4 years to reduce crowding and encourage blooming. Dividing should be done when plants are dormant in August or September. When dividing, check rhizomes for signs of disease and cut out any soft, wrinkled or marred parts. Let rhizomes dry overnight before replanting to allow cut areas to seal over to protect
Watch for Iris borer which will eat through the rhizomes. If you do get borers, dig up and cut off the damaged rhizomes.
Iris are often sold bare root from seed companies and there are several online iris companies in southern Ontario. They tend to ship for fall planting when plants are dormant. You can purchase plants in containers in garden centres in spring or summer.
Royal Botanical Gardens in Burlington have a wonderful display garden if you are up for a trip. Check out their website https://www.rbg.ca/gardens
Iris siberica is another showy plant in the early summer garden. Siberian Iris grow 15” to 36” tall with lots of smaller flowers having standards and falls. Their leaves are narrower and almost grass-like. Siberian Iris can be planted into the soil rather than on top although they still have rhizomes. They can take full sun or part sun and do like a moist area. Dividing needs only to be done every 10 years or if the centre dies out.
One of the earliest iris is Iris reticulata which is actually a bulb that you would plant in the fall. They are short and usually purple.
In Ontario we have native iris that are classed as wildflowers and known as Flags. They include Iris versicolor which you will find in shades of blue and Iris lacustris which is a smaller wildflower and very rare. These are often used in pond settings as they prefer to be wet. Iris pseudacorus is the non native yellow flag iris which is listed on the Ontario Invasive list.
Iris are poisonous for cats, dogs and humans if eaten.
Canadians love to garden! 2022 is the Canadian ornamental sector’s centennial and has been declared by the Canadian Garden Council as the Year of the Garden. For more information, check Year of the Garden.
Our gardens became even more important to us over the last couple of years while we were sheltering at home due to the covid pandemic. 2022 is a year for us to share our gardening passion and knowledge. It is the mission of the Peterborough and Area Master Gardeners to inform, educate and inspire the residents of Peterborough and area to create healthy and vibrant gardens, landscapes and communities through the use of safe, effective, proven and sustainable horticultural practices. Peterborough has even declared itself as a garden-friendly city as part of the Year of the Garden festivities!
So, think how you can “live the garden life” … maybe consider gardening indoors with house plants, or in containers on your balcony or create a new garden in your yard. You could join your local Horticultural Society to learn more about plants and then perhaps become more involved in the community. Your next step might be to become a Master Gardener!
The Peterborough and Area Master Gardeners will celebrate the Year of the Garden by partnering with the Peterborough Public Library to renovate the gardens around their Aylmer Street building. The gardens had originally been planted with invasive plants. We will remove the invasives and replace them with native plants from Grow Wild, Native Plant Nursery. The Peterborough Kawartha Association of Realtors (PKAR) are providing some much needed sponsorship funding for the project. We are planning to involve the younger crowd in some of the planting along with our great group of adult volunteers. We hope that, with some growing time, the gardens will become a haven with native plants and local pollinators and a beautiful spot for human visitors to rest.
June 18/2022 has been designated as the Year of the Garden day in Peterborough. The opening of the newly planted gardens at the Peterborough Public Library will be on that date from 10 until 2 pm. There will also be a story walk for children, a Master Gardener advice table and more. Another great event happening that day is the Peterborough Horticultural Society’s garden tour. Tickets will be on sale soon for the tour. Follow the Peterborough Master Gardeners and the Peterborough Horticultural Association on social media for more information.
“To plant a garden is to believe in tomorrow.” Audrey Hepburn
If you’re like me, you love to garden. Time in my garden provides me with joy on so many levels — emotional, physical, social, creative — and connects me with the outdoors and the environment. And while the COVID-19 pandemic has turned our lives upside down, one of the silver linings is that we’ve seen a renewed interest in gardening and its benefits, whether you’re working in a large garden or a few containers on your balcony. So I thought I would explore some of the top reasons I think we garden.
Physical and Emotional Health
Gardening is physical. As a low to medium impact exercise that requires both strength and stretching, you’ll see increased muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness over time, as well as improved sleep and diet (if you grow your own produce). On the emotional side, gardening reduces stress, anxiety, and depression and improves self esteem.
It’s good for the mind — gardening calms me down and helps me be more patient with myself and those I interact with on a daily basis. It gives me time to contemplate as I go about my tasks, up to my elbows in soil. Even weeding is cathartic, pulling out those little terrors by the root!
Just visiting gardens helps to calm the mind, bringing a sense of contentment and tranquility from looking at beautiful landscapes, flowers, or just colour and texture.
While gardening can be a solo activity (some of my favourite moments are just by myself in my green oasis), it’s also a fabulous way to connect with people, whether they be family or strangers!
Teaching people how to nurture a living thing and to be responsible for a little bit of the environment is a lesson and gift we can share with others. Gardening knowledge is shared through generations — I love hearing about plants handed down from grandparents, or children working with their parents to grow seeds for the first time. It’s a great way to pass on critical life lessons — about patience as plants and vegetables grow, responsibility as they look after their care, and loss when flowers die at the end of a season.
Beyond family, gardening helps us connect with the broader community. Whether you plant too many tomatoes or zucchinis and end up giving them away to neighbours, or participate in a community garden plot, gardening can be a very social activity and a chance to learn from, and share your bounty, with others.
Learning Life Values
Gardening teaches you important life values like patience, determination, caring, and hard work. It also makes you very humble as you realize that there is always something new to learn. You need to observe the seasons and the weather, and this puts you in contact with the natural world. I love that I can get dirty and do this very physical activity, working with seeds and plants and seeing growth in all I do.
Growing Your Own Food
Gardening provides benefits for your wallet, your nutrition, and reduces your environmental footprint. By growing your own food (either from seeds or small plants), your food is automatically more sustainable simply because you are doing it onsite or in a community garden. If you control the ‘inputs’ and do it well, you can save a lot of money.
But ultimately there is nothing more rewarding than planting and maintaining your own vegetable garden and harvesting (and sharing) your results. And we all know how much better homegrown produce tastes versus conventional produce at the grocery store. If you have too much produce, then you can just share the love with others!
Connecting With Nature
I think this is one of the best reasons why people have a garden — the sunshine on your face, hands in the dirt, and feeling connected to nature. The garden is so much more than just plants and flowers — it’s the birds, the bugs, the bees, the spiders, the snakes and all the small mammals. I feel like I am establishing a little ecosystem in my own garden and that I am trying to give back for all the benefits that I receive.
Working in the garden also gives you that sense of wonder, accomplishment, and reward. To grow plants is to give life. It keeps you busy but reminds you to be one with the earth. To see the results of something growing from seed to six feet tall is just incredible.
I find gardening to be an incredibly creative activity. Finding the right plant for the right spot, mixing colours, and making sure there is interest for every season — these are real challenges. I’ve spent much of the past few years learning about new plants to consider in my garden, especially natives.
Helping The Environment
Finally, gardening is so important for our planet. Even though we create our gardens (so they are human made) they do represent natural environments, with trees and shrubs and plants that are all taking in carbon and releasing oxygen. The plant roots stabilize the soil and filter water, and the plants themselves support our pollinators.
We live in a symbiotic relationship with our gardens. We give back by planting and maintaining them, but we receive so much more from them than we give.
It’s really cold out. I mean REALLY cold. -25 degrees Celsius cold. With lots of snow. And wind. And ice. So it’s got me dreaming of springtime and things that are green and not white.
So indulge me while I research and share with you some of my favourite English gardens in southern England that we plan to visit later this spring. Hoping things improve to celebrate my aunt’s 95th birthday and fulfill a long held dream to visit England in late springtime. While I’m planting many more natives in my messy “English-style” garden, I’m still fascinated with the diversity, structure, and composition of more formal English gardens.
Here’s my top 5 ‘not to be missed South England gardens” – there are (of course) more on our list but these are the key ones. Some of these may be familiar to you, and some not…
Hoping that these profiles help ease the January blues. Since I’ve haven’t been there yet these are photos taken by others. If you have been lucky enough to visit these gardens please share your photos in the comments.
Great Dixter is an historic house, a garden, a centre of education, and a place of pilgrimage for horticulturists from across the world. Certainly it’s the one garden that has the highest reputation with overseas visitors.
Surprisingly, it’s maintained this reputation for many decades, even through a change of hands. Initially famous through its owner Christopher Lloyd (1921-2006) – who lived in the half-timbered fifteenth-century house all his life – Lloyd (or “Christo” as he was known) was not only a gifted and artistic gardener but a prolific and knowledgeable writer whose articles and books inspired a generation of gardeners.
Today, the gardens are managed by the Great Dixter Charitable Trust and Fergus Garrett, who became head gardener in 1992. I was lucky enough to hear him speak at a Toronto Master Gardeners’ Technical Update a few years ago.
The two gardeners had a creative working relationship, both loving plants and their combinations, and even though Lloyd is gone more than 50,000 visitors a year find Great Dixter as vibrant a garden as ever, and full of things to learn from.
This is an ‘arts and crafts’ style garden, with topiary, a long border, an orchard and a wild flower meadow. The planting is profuse, yet structured, and has featured many bold experiments of form, colour and combination.
On the grounds are three 18th-century oast houses, under a common roof, and a 15th-century barn. Find out more here.
Located in beautiful Kent, Sissinghurst Castle Garden was created by poet and writer Vita Sackville-West and her husband Harold Nicolson, author and diplomat in 1930 and developed over 30 years with some notable head gardeners.
Designated Grade I on Historic England’s register of historic parks and gardens, it’s among the most famous gardens in England. They transformed a farmstead of “squalor and slovenly disorder” into one of the world’s most influential gardens.
Following her death in 1962, the estate was donated to the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. It is one of the Trust’s most popular properties, with more than 200,000 visitors each year (and I hope to be one of them!).
There are a number of specialty gardens, including the Rose Garden, the (famous) White Garden, the South Cottage Garden, the Herb Garden, the Nuttery, the Lime Walk (Spring Garden), the Delos Garden (Mediterranean garden), Moat Walk, the Orchard, and the Purple Border. Learn more here.
Hidcote is a world-famous garden located in the north Cotswolds (not far from [the original] Stratford-upon-Avon). Created by the talented horticulturist Major Lawrence Johnston (and inspired by the work of designers Alfred Parsons and Gertrude Jekyll), yew, holly and beech hedges define a series of outdoor garden rooms – the Circle, the Fuchsia garden , the Bathing Pool Garden, the Red Borders and the steps up to the two gazebos. The outbreak of the Great War (1914 – 1918) in which Lawrence fought, suspended progress.
You might recognize the narrow-leaved lavender, Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’, and Penstemon ‘Hidcote Pink’, as developed by Johnston. Many of the plants found growing in the garden were collected from Johnston’s many plant-hunting trips to faraway places so it will be the perfect source for gardening inspiration. More history here.
Created in 1885 at the former home of William Robinson, who championed naturalistic planting, the site today is a prestigious hotel, but visitors can still enjoy the gardens which are curated and cared for by Tom Coward (who trained with Fergus Garrett at Great Dixter).
An oasis of calm with over 35 acres of beautiful grounds, Robinson created a landscape that celebrates nature rather than controls it. He also introduced the idea of the modern mixed border and popularized common place items such as secateurs and hose pipes. In many ways Robinson created modern gardening as we know it.
Some of his most influential books include The Wild Garden and The English Flower Garden, which remains the bestselling gardening book ever printed. He also ran several gardening journals such as The Garden and Garden Illustrated.
Robinson made Gravetye “the paradigm in which house, garden, fields, and forest are united in a pastoral work of art as quintessentially English as a painting by Constable,” wrote landscape designer Elizabeth Barlow Rogers. Some ideas on how to create the Gravetye look here.
Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden Wisley is operated by the RHS and is a beautiful garden with romantic half-timbered Tudor-style buildings. Unlike many English gardens, the soil is mainly acid sand which is poor in nutrients and fast draining.
There is a canal designed by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, a rock garden, formal and walled gardens by Lanning Roper, a country garden by Penelope Hobhouse and long borders by Piet Oudolf.
Then there are long herbaceous borders, the alpine gardens, the model gardens, soft fruit garden, rose-garden, summer garden, winter garden and woodland garden, a fruit field, glasshouses and an arboretum.
This garden is home to some of the largest plant collections anywhere in the world, with constantly evolving planting schemes to inspire visitors. In June 2021, Hilltop – The Home of Gardening Science opened at Wisley so I’m looking forward to exploring this impressive exhibition space and three beautiful new gardens.
Well that’s it for this blog – I hope you feel inspired to explore gardens wherever you live or travel – they are so many incredible gardens here in Canada and the U.S. alone. Even if we can’t travel much at the moment, many gardens have developed virtual visits, presentations, and videos so you can explore that way until we can move more freely. One of my favourites is the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden in Richmond, Virginia, which I hope to visit in person in the future. Check it out here.
I leave you with a photo of my messy Lakefield “English garden” from last summer, my hardworking husband and our 2021 new greenhouse and dreams of springtime.
Gardeners are used to seeing the “zone” as part of the information provided on the label of most perennial plants, trees and shrubs purchased from a nursery. Some labels will list a zone with the corresponding temperature in brackets afterwards. This seems like an easy way to determine if your chosen plant will successfully grow in your garden–you will need to know the average lowest winter temperature, in your region, then figure out your zone. You then just buy the plant labelled with your zone for success! Easy, right? Yes and no!
In Canada, the original 1960’s plant hardiness zones were based on information gathered at 640 weather stations across the country along with the survival results of selected trees and shrubs. In 2012, revised maps were released using elevation, more locations and more environmental details resulting in a hardiness index which corresponds to a zone . At present, there are 13 zones ranging from 1-13. You may also see an “a” or “b” beside the number. This indicates a slight variation within that region. See Plant Hardiness Zone by Municipality to find your zone.
In the USA, the system is different. Again, there are 13 zones ranging from 1-13 and “a” or “b” indicates variation within the region. See US Plant Hardiness Zones. However, the US system is only based on minimum temperature and no other factors. You may read about a plant grown in the US and designated US zone 5. A US zone 5 labelled plant may require warmer winter conditions than it’s corresponding zone 5 labelled Canadian plant. Bottom line, US zones may not be the same as Canada’s.
Canadian data is based on previously collected information but we know that the weather does not always follow past patterns — it can, and will, fluctuate (e.g. freeze/thaw cycles). There may be microclimates (see Microclimate in Wikipedia) in your own gardening space. Good gardening practices (e.g. soil preparation) will contribute to the successful growth of your plant. Plant survival and growth depends on your gardening expertise and knowledge. The zone is just one indicator of whether, or not, the plant that you are contemplating will grow well in your garden. Oh, and Peterborough is a Canadian plant hardiness zone 5 b.
#1 The plant hardiness zone site now can be used to explore where the specific plant that you are thinking about purchasing will grow through the “Species-Specific Models and Maps”. It does this by creating a “climate profile” of the plant and then mapping where it will grow in Canada. These are preliminary maps but click here to try it out.
#2 Grow native plants! Native plants are specifically well suited to an area especially if you can purchase locally grown plants or find locally sourced seeds.
#3 Consult local nursery staff and your knowledgeable fellow gardeners. They will know what will successfully grow in your area.
#4 Experiment! If there is a plant that you really must have, but the zone is off a little…..try it. You will need to choose a protected location for planting and probably baby it along but sometimes it may be worth it. Talking to other knowledgeable local gardeners may be especially helpful….someone may have successfully grown that special plant in their garden and may share their growing tips with you!
Your once showy, spectacular plants have finished blooming and their foliage may have withered. Do not despair, the late summer/fall garden can still be something to behold as well as feeding the pollinators and other wildlife!
Plants that grow, bloom, go to seed then die all in one season are annuals. Annuals may be used to add some much needed colour at the end of our summer season. Zinnia, Petunia, annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and Cosmos are easy to source and grow. The ornamental kales and cabbages are dramatic plants that will look good in your pots or your garden.
Hydrangea – I am referring to the panicle (H. paniculata) and smooth hydrangeas (H. arborescens) that bloom on new wood and may be pruned in late winter or very early spring. This is a plant that steals the show in late summer, fall and even into winter. They produce large, pink, white or pink/white poufy blooms. The blooms may be dried for inside décor or left on the plant outside for winter interest.
Witch hazel – Hamamelis virginiana is a native that blooms with interesting, spidery petaled, yellow flowers in the fall. This plant will attract birds to your garden.
Plants that grow, bloom and produce seed but do not die after just one season … some are short lived but some live for many years. There are lots of perennials that bloom in late summer and fall. Many, like the native Aster species and golden rod (Solidago species) provide food for wildlife including the pollinators.
Some others in my garden include:
Phlox– There are lots of P. paniculata cultivars that bloom in the fall. This plant comes in a myriad of colours. Do not confuse this plant with the mid-summer/August blooming dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis) which can be quite invasive. Phlox flowers have five petals and dame’s rocket have four.
Black eyed susan – Bright, happy native plants and cultivars (Rudbeckia species) that may be annual, biennial (germinate in spring of first growing season but do not flower and go to seed until the next growing season) or perennial. The wild ones that we see on the Ontario road side are most often biennials.
Bugbane – Another pretty native (Actaea species formerly Cimicifuga) that blooms in the fall. I spent lots of time trying to get a good photo of a bumblebee on this plant’s bloom but it was too fast for me!
Anise hyssop – The bees love Agastache foeniculum. I have mine planted along a path. It is tall and quite dramatic when in bloom.
Plume poppy – This is the plant that everyone will ask “what is that”. Macleaya cordata growsvery tall and has an interesting seed head and large leaves. Beware though because it can spread through rhizomes (underground roots) and it exudes an orangey sap when pulled. It is easy to control just by pulling the plants when small but wear gloves to avoid touching the sap…it is poisonous.
Coneflower – Echinacea purpurea is a native plant but there are lots of colourful cultivars. Birds eat the seeds held in the spent blooms in winter.
Pussy toes – The bees love this native (Atennaria species) too. Just like it’s common name, this plant has cute little flowers that resemble the toes of a soft, white kitten.
Sedum/stonecrops – These plants are some of the toughest, hardworking plants in your garden. They can take lots of heat and dry conditions. There are many, many to choose from … some bloom in spring and some bloom into the fall. The sometimes colorful foliage can add interest and the blooms will attract pollinators.
So observe your garden, does it need some help this time of year? Try shopping the fall sales at your local nursery. If you can fit in some of these plants, you will have a beautiful garden full of late season blooms.